Posts tagged ‘Code.org’

A Weak Argument that Silicon Valley is Pushing Coding Into American Classrooms through Code.org

When the New York Times does an article on Code.org, it’s worth noting.  I had my class on Computing and Society read the essay and critique it, and they were dubious.  They have a bias — they’re all Georgia Tech students in STEM, and almost all majoring in Computer Science.  They tend to think learning to code is a good thing.  Still, they were concerned about the article, with good reason.  They wondered, “Where exactly is Code.org doing something wrong?”

I had similar concerns. I read the quote from Jane Margolis (“It gets very problematic when industry is deciding the content and direction of public education”) and thought, “Jane didn’t just say that.  She would have explained what she meant by ‘problematic.'”  It felt to me like the quote was taken out of context.

Is Code.org really “deciding” what goes into public education?  Or are they simply influencing those who do decide?  Maybe Silicon Valley is having undue influence. This article didn’t really make the case.

Code.org’s multilevel influence machine also raises the question of whether Silicon Valley is swaying public schools to serve its own interests — in this case, its need for software engineers — with little scrutiny. “If I were a state legislator, I would certainly be wondering about motives,” said Sarah Reckhow, an assistant professor of political science at Michigan State University. “You want to see public investment in a skill set that is the skill set you need for your business?”Mr. Partovi, 44, said he simply wanted to give students the opportunity to develop the same skills that helped him and his backers succeed. He immigrated as a child to the United States from Iran with his family, went on to study computer science at Harvard, and later sold a voice-recognition start-up he had co-founded to Microsoft for a reported $800 million.

“That dream is much less accessible if you are in one of America’s schools where they don’t even tell you you could go into that field,” Mr. Partovi said.

Even so, he acknowledged some industry self-interest. “If you are running a tech company,” he said, “it’s extremely hard to hire and retain engineers.”

July 28, 2017 at 7:00 am 4 comments

Why are underrepresented minorities and poor over-represented in Code.org courses?

Code.org has a blog post describing their latest demographics results showing that they have remarkably high percentages of women (45%) and under-represented minorities (48%). In fact, their students are 49% on free and reduced meals.

Only 38% of students in the US are on free and reduced lunch.  44% of students in the US are Black or Hispanic (using US Department of Education data).

What does it mean that Code.org classes are over-sampling under-represented groups and poorer students?

I don’t know. Certainly, it’s because Code.org targeted large, urban school districts.  That’s who’s there.  But it’s not like the classes are unavailable to anyone else.  If the perception was these are valuable, shouldn’t more suburban schools be wanting them, too?

One explanation I can imagine is that schools that are majority poor and/or minority might be under-funded, so Code.org classes with their well-defined curriculum and clear teacher preparation models are very attractive. Those schools may not have the option of hiring (say) an AP CS teacher who might pick from one of the non-Code.org curriculum options, or even develop his or her own.

The key question for me is: Why aren’t the more majority and wealthier schools using Code.org classes?  CS is a new-to-schools, mostly-elective subject.  Usually those new opportunities get to the wealthy kids first.  Unless they don’t want it. Maybe the wealthy schools are dismissing these opportunities?

It’s possible that Code.org classes (and maybe CS in high school more generally) might get end up stigmatized as being for the poor and minority kids?  Perhaps the majority kids or the middle/upper-class kids and schools avoid those classes? We have had computing classes in Georgia that were considered “so easy” that administrators would fill the classes with problem students — college-bound students would avoid those classes.  We want CS for all.

Code.org has achieved something wonderful in getting so many diverse students into computing classes. The questions I’m raising are not meant as any criticism of Code.org.  Rather, I’m asking how the public at large is thinking about CS, and I’m using Code.org classes as an exemplar since we have data on them.  Perceptions matter, and I’m raising questions about the perceptions of CS classes in K-12.

I do have a complaint with the claim in the post quoted below.  The citation is to the College Board’s 2007 study which found that AP CS students are more likely to major in CS than most other AP’s, with a differentially strong impact for female and under-represented minority students.  “Taking AP CS” is not the same as “learn computer science in K-12 classrooms.”  That’s too broad a claim — not all K-12 CS is likely to have the same result.

Today, we’re happy to announce that our annual survey results are in. And, for the second year in a row, underrepresented minorities make up 48% of students in our courses and females once again make up 45% of our students…When females learn computer science in K-12 classrooms, they’re ten times more likely to major in it in college. Underrepresented minorities are seven to eight times more likely.

Source: Girls and underrepresented minorities are represented in Code.org courses

July 21, 2017 at 8:00 am 8 comments

University CS graduation surpasses its 2003 peak, with poor diversity

Code.org just blogged that we have set a record in the number of BS in CS graduates.

University CS graduates have set a new record, finally surpassing the number of degrees earned 14 years ago.With a 15% increase in computer science graduates (49,291 bachelor’s degrees), 2015 had the largest number of CS graduates EVER! The previous high point was over a decade ago, in 2003.

Source: University computer science finally surpasses its 2003 peak!

But look at the female numbers there — they are less than what they were in 2003.  We are graduating 2/3 as many women today as in 2003.  (Thanks to Bobby Schnabel for pointing this out.) We have lost ground.

My most recent Blog@CACM is on the new CRA “Generation CS” report, and about the impacts the rise in enrollment are having on diversity.  One of the positive messages in this report is that departments that have worked to improve their diversity have been successful.  As a national statistic, this doesn’t feel like a celebration when CS is becoming less diverse in just 12 years.

 

April 10, 2017 at 7:00 am 4 comments

Does pre-service CS education reduce the costs and make more effective in-service PD? Paths to #CS4All

What we’re trying to achieve in CS education in the United States is rarely done (successfully) and hasn’t been done in several decades (see previous post on this).  We’re changing the education canon, what everyone is taught in schools.  It’s a huge effort, involving standards and frameworks, convincing principals and legislators, and developing teachers and curricula.

Right now, we’re mostly developing the teachers we need with in-service education — which is expensive.  We’re shipping around trainers, people providing professional development to existing teachers.  We’re paying travel costs (sometimes) to teachers, and stipends (sometimes) for their time.

I have argued previously that we have to move to a pre-service model, where new teachers are prepared to be CS teachers from undergraduate education.  It’s the only way to have a sustainable flow of CS teachers into the education system.  NYC is working on developing per-service programs now, because it’s a necessity for their CS education mandate.  No reform takes root in US schools without being in schools of education.

At a meeting of the Georgia CS Task Force, where talking about the high costs of in-service CS teacher education, we started wondering if the costs might be cheaper in the long-run by growing pre-service education, rather than scaling in-service.  Of course, we have to build a critical mass cohort of in-service teachers (e.g., to provide mentors for student teachers) — in many states, we’ve already done that.

Creating pre-service programs at state universities creates opportunities for in-service education that are cheaper and maybe more effective than what we’re creating today. Pre-service programs would require CS Education faculty (and likely, graduate students) at state universities.  These people are then resources.

  • First, those faculty are now offering pre-service PD, which is necessary for sustainability.
  • Regional high school and elementary school teachers could then go to the local university for in-service programs — which can be run more cheaply at the university, than at a downtown hotel or conference center with presenters shipped in from elsewhere.
  • The CS Ed faculty are there as a resource for regional high school teachers for follow-up, and the follow-up is a critical part of actually instituting new curricula.
  • Many education schools offer resources (e.g., curriculum libraries, help with teacher questions) that would be useful to CS teachers and are available locally with people who can answer questions.

Pre-service programs require more up-front costs (e.g., paying for faculty, setting up programs).  But those costs likely amortize over the lifetime of the faculty and the program.  Each individual professional development session offered by local faculty (either pre-service or in-service) is cheaper than each in-service  session created by non-local presenters/developers.  Over many years, it is likely cheaper to pay the higher up-front costs for pre-service than the long, expensive burn of in-service.

I don’t know how to figure out the cost trade-off, but it might be worthwhile for providers like Code.org and PLTW to play out the scenarios.

July 20, 2016 at 7:54 am 4 comments

Top business leaders, 27 governors, urge Congress to boost computer science education – The Washington Post

I saw on Facebook that Hadi Partovi was at Congress.  Now I see why — there’s an effort underway to get Congress to fund more in CS education.  I’m wondering what they want to get funded.  Incentives for teachers? Professional development? Pre-service education?  Does someone know the details?

Despite this groundswell, three-quarters of U.S. schools do not offer meaningful computer science courses. At a time when every industry in every state is impacted by advances in computer technology, our schools should give all students the opportunity to understand how this technology works, to learn how to be creators, coders, and makers — not just consumers. Instead, what is increasingly a basic skill is only available to the lucky few, leaving most students behind, particularly students of color and girls.

How is this acceptable? America leads the world in technology. We invented the personal computer, the Internet, e-commerce, social networking, and the smartphone. This is our chance to position the next generation to participate in the new American Dream.

Source: Top business leaders, 27 governors, urge Congress to boost computer science education – The Washington Post

April 26, 2016 at 8:51 am Leave a comment

How to Participate in the K12 CS Framework Review Process

I’ve mentioned the K12 CS Framework Process a couple of times before (see this blog post).  It’s now available for public comment.

Individuals and institutions are invited to be reviewers of the K-12 CS framework. Institutions, such as state/district departments of education and organizations (industry, companies, non-profits), are responsible for selecting an individual or a group to represent the institution. Reviewers can choose to participate in one or both of the two review periods:

  • Feb 3 to Feb 17: Review of the 9-12 grade band concepts and practices
  • March 14 to April 1: Review of the entire K-12 concepts and practices

There will be a public webinar (save this link) to launch the first review period on Feb 3 at 8pm ET / 5pm PT. Learn about the development of the framework and how to provide an effective review.

Find different instructions for individuals and facilitators of group reviews, including an informational session kit for review group facilitators at http://k12cs.org/review.  Visit this page after 9 am on Feb 3rd and you’ll be able to access the framework draft and an online feedback form for the first public review

Sincerely,

Lian Halbert, K-12 CS Framework development staff

P.S. Are you attending SIGCSE 2016 in Memphis this March 2-5? We will hold a Birds of a Feather session on Thursday March 3 for all SIGCSE attendees – feel free to invite folks so they can learn about the K-12 CS framework.

February 3, 2016 at 8:02 am Leave a comment

What’s the impact of the Hour of Code? It goes way beyond an Hour

Code.org has just released an interesting survey about their Hour of Code initiative.  They’ve been criticized for providing only an hour and overly focusing on puzzles (see Mitchel Resnick’s article here).  The results suggest that they’re reaching a diverse audience, and having an effect beyond an hour — students keep going, and teachers start teaching CS.

Programming is a literacy, and no one develops any kind of literacy in just an hour of practice.  Games are not the most interesting and powerful kinds of programming activities.

But they’re a start.  Particularly when we get past the Inverse Lake Wobegon Effect of thinking about students as being like us.  We know from many studies that students are afraid of computer programming. I’m teaching Media Computation again this semester, and at least a third of the students who have come talk to me after class have started their conversation with, “I’m one of those people who just don’t do computers.”  And that’s just those self-reporting without prompting!  Students associate CS with being a geek and wouldn’t want to let their friends know they like computer science, even if they do.  Few students get any kind of computer science education outside of Hour of Code.

When we think about most people, sustained activity in programming for one hour can go a long way to reducing fear, increasing self-efficacy, and nurturing interest. (Consider an Hour of Code compared to less than <5 minutes typically spent at a museum exhibit.) Games are a useful place to start because they’re well-structured. Aptitude-treatment interaction tells us that more structure is better with students who have less background in a subject.  Open-ended, constructionist activities like those that Mitchel is promoting are more successful with more privileged students, those who have more experience which results in higher-ability students. The Hour of Code can help inspire students to get that additional experience needed to develop more ability.)  An Hour of Code is a good first step for the remedial state of computing education in the United States today.

Hooray for Hour of Code, and thanks to Code.org for promoting it and for sharing these data.

The onus is on us to turn the Hour of Code into a Lifetime of Computational Literacy. 

After the Hour of Code, we asked participating organizers how it went and got some fantastic news for our field.

  • 98% had a good or great experience.
  • 85% of those new to computer science said the Hour of Code increased their interest in teaching computer science.
  • 49% said they plan to continue teaching computer science beyond one hour.
  • 18% said they began teaching computer science after a previous Hour of Code campaign!
  • 87% said their students did more than just one hour of coding.

Source: What’s the impact of the Hour of Code? | Code.org

January 22, 2016 at 8:41 am Leave a comment

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