Posts tagged ‘computing for everyone’

Helping students succeed in AP CS: GT Computing Undergraduate Female Rising Up to Challenge in CS

There’s a common refrain heard at “CS for All” and BPC events in the US these days. “AP CS A is just terrible. AP CS Principles will fix everything.” The reality is that there are bad AP CS A classes, and there are good ones. There is evidence that just having good curricula doesn’t get you more and more diverse students. The more important reality is that AP CS A accurately matches most introductory computer science classes in the United States. If you want students to succeed at the CS classes that are in our Universities today, AP CS A is the game to play at high school.

That’s why Barbara’s Rise Up programs are so important. She’s helping female and African-American students succeed in the CS that’s in their schools and on University campuses today. And she’s having tremendous success, as seen in the story below about a female high school football player who is now a CS undergraduate.

Barbara’s work is smart, because she’s working with the existing CS infrastructure and curricula. She’s helping students to succeed at this game, through a process of tutoring and near-peer mentoring. This is a strategy to get more female CS undergraduates.

That’s when she discovered Sisters Rise Up 4 CS, a relatively new program developed in Fall 2014 at Georgia Tech by Barbara Ericson. The program was based on Project Rise Up 4 CS, which aims to help African-American students pass the AP Computer Science A exam. Sisters Rise Up does the same for females.The program offers extra help sessions in the form of webinars and in-person help sessions, near-peer role models, exposure to a college campus, and a community of learners.“The program helped me get hooked on computer science,” Seibel said. “I started to actually learn. Seeing that some of the girls in the program had interned at Google or other places like that, and that they really loved CS, it gets you excited about it. They were only a few years older than me, and I was like, ‘Oh. That could be me.’”

Source: GT Computing Undergraduate Sabrina Seibel Rising Up to Challenge in CS | College of Computing

July 26, 2017 at 9:00 am 1 comment

Why are underrepresented minorities and poor over-represented in Code.org courses?

Code.org has a blog post describing their latest demographics results showing that they have remarkably high percentages of women (45%) and under-represented minorities (48%). In fact, their students are 49% on free and reduced meals.

Only 38% of students in the US are on free and reduced lunch.  44% of students in the US are Black or Hispanic (using US Department of Education data).

What does it mean that Code.org classes are over-sampling under-represented groups and poorer students?

I don’t know. Certainly, it’s because Code.org targeted large, urban school districts.  That’s who’s there.  But it’s not like the classes are unavailable to anyone else.  If the perception was these are valuable, shouldn’t more suburban schools be wanting them, too?

One explanation I can imagine is that schools that are majority poor and/or minority might be under-funded, so Code.org classes with their well-defined curriculum and clear teacher preparation models are very attractive. Those schools may not have the option of hiring (say) an AP CS teacher who might pick from one of the non-Code.org curriculum options, or even develop his or her own.

The key question for me is: Why aren’t the more majority and wealthier schools using Code.org classes?  CS is a new-to-schools, mostly-elective subject.  Usually those new opportunities get to the wealthy kids first.  Unless they don’t want it. Maybe the wealthy schools are dismissing these opportunities?

It’s possible that Code.org classes (and maybe CS in high school more generally) might get end up stigmatized as being for the poor and minority kids?  Perhaps the majority kids or the middle/upper-class kids and schools avoid those classes? We have had computing classes in Georgia that were considered “so easy” that administrators would fill the classes with problem students — college-bound students would avoid those classes.  We want CS for all.

Code.org has achieved something wonderful in getting so many diverse students into computing classes. The questions I’m raising are not meant as any criticism of Code.org.  Rather, I’m asking how the public at large is thinking about CS, and I’m using Code.org classes as an exemplar since we have data on them.  Perceptions matter, and I’m raising questions about the perceptions of CS classes in K-12.

I do have a complaint with the claim in the post quoted below.  The citation is to the College Board’s 2007 study which found that AP CS students are more likely to major in CS than most other AP’s, with a differentially strong impact for female and under-represented minority students.  “Taking AP CS” is not the same as “learn computer science in K-12 classrooms.”  That’s too broad a claim — not all K-12 CS is likely to have the same result.

Today, we’re happy to announce that our annual survey results are in. And, for the second year in a row, underrepresented minorities make up 48% of students in our courses and females once again make up 45% of our students…When females learn computer science in K-12 classrooms, they’re ten times more likely to major in it in college. Underrepresented minorities are seven to eight times more likely.

Source: Girls and underrepresented minorities are represented in Code.org courses

July 21, 2017 at 8:00 am 8 comments

“Algorithms aren’t racist. Your skin is just too dark.”: Teaching Ethics to future Software Developers

In my Ethics class this summer, I had my students watch Joy Buolamwini’s TED talk when we talked about professional ethics and responsibility.  My students had not before considered the possibility that bias is being built into software, but they recognized the importance of her message. Our students who will be software engineers have to be thinking about her message, about the racism that we build into our machines.

She’s been getting a lot of press since her TED talk, including this recent piece in The Guardian.  In her blog post quoted below, she responds to her critics in a careful and respectful tone, which took an enormous amount of maturity and patience.  “Suggesting people with dark skin keep extra lights around to better illuminate themselves misses the point.”  She is more patient and well-spoken than me. I think my response to the critics would have included the phrase, “Are you kidding me?!?” (with perhaps a couple more words in there).

One of the goals of the Algorithmic Justice League is to highlight problems with artificial intelligence so we can start working on solutions. We provide actionable critique while working on research to make more inclusive artificial intelligence. In speaking up about my experiences, others have been encouraged to share their stories. The silence is broken. More people are aware that we can embed bias in machines. This is only the beginning as we start to collect more reports.

Source: Algorithms aren’t racist. Your skin is just too dark.

July 17, 2017 at 7:00 am Leave a comment

Concerns about Computing in England’s Schools: What draws students and schools into CS?

The most amazing and somewhat depressing session I attended at CAS 2017 was the presentation by Peter Kemp on the Roehampton report, a detailed analysis of what’s going on with computing education in England.  As a computing education researcher, I was frankly jealous. They have access to data that I cannot get in the US — for the whole country: demographics, attendance in CS classes, outcomes on tests, family income, and schools and districts that offer CS.

Even if you just read the Key Findings (executive summary), you’ll need a bit of translation if you’re not familiar with the UK system.

  • A GCSE is a General Certificate of Secondary Education.  Students need these to be able to go on to college-level studies.  It’s part of successful completion of high school. There was a GCSE in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), but that’s going away in favor of one in Computer Science.
  • A-Levels are roughly equivalent to Advanced Placement in the US.  There are A-Levels available in Computing.
  • Pupil Premium is funding given to a school for each child they enroll that are underprivileged, roughly like free and reduced lunch in the US.

I’m going to generalize and interpret some of the findings in the Roehampton report:

  • Computing is predominantly male and wealthier in England.  Almost 27% of the GCSE computing classes had no females at all.
  • Overall, less than 30% of schools offer computer science. 29.5% of urban schools offer GCSE computing, and 22.7% of rural schools.
  • Where there is computer science, the classes are too small to be sustainable.  The tweet below is about A-levels, which are on average less than 6 students each, where the government sees 11 as a sustainable size (e.g., it’s worth the cost of the teacher to serve those students).

What’s worse, as described in the BBC article linked below, is that ICT is going away and computer science is not growing rapidly.  In the end, there may be less computing for English students than before the new CS curriculum.

There are many explanations for these results. People at CAS who were involved in developing the new CS curriculum told me that they didn’t want to swap out ICT for CS.  They wanted both, but the decision was made to have rigorous CS instead of digital literacy.  I found this timeline interesting. Though obviously biased in favor of ICT, the author has a good point.  Maybe students and teachers don’t want coding.

I’m wondering about the meaning for the US and the rest of the world. The CAS movement is ahead of many national efforts to provide computing in primary and secondary schools for all students. Part of the belief of the AP CSP and CS for All movements in the US has been that if you have good curriculum and well-prepared teachers, schools will want to teach CS and kids (of all demographic groups) will want to take CS.  CAS offers terrific curriculum and high-quality professional development (see their Tenderfoot materials, for example). And yet, one hypothesis that explains the given data is that English students prefer digital literacy to computer science.

Maybe we have been wrong in how we go about computing education. Maybe access and curriculum aren’t enough. If students and teachers have prior negative conceptions about CS and coding, maybe the excellent curriculum and professional development from CAS is not enough to draw in the students nor to convince the schools to offer CS. Why should we expect it to be different in the US?  Is it enough that President Obama made CS for All a personal initiative?  Or do stories about sexism in the IT industry counteract that?  I’m dismayed that American CS faculty are pushing against recruiting women or making a special effort to retain them (see comments at CACM).  It’s not clear that it will be different in the US.

The old ICT course, which was the main way school students learned about computing, is being scrapped, with the last GCSE entrants taking the exam next year. The subject, which was described by critics as teaching little more than how to use Microsoft Office, is being replaced by the more rigorous computer science GCSE.

But figures from Ofqual showing entries for the exam rising to 67,800 this year from 61,220 in 2016 have set alarm bells ringing. With 58,600 still taking the ICT exam, the overall number getting a GCSE computing qualification has fallen slightly.

The British Computing Society says that when ICT disappears, the computer science exam will fail to fill the gap.

“If we don’t act now,” says Bill Mitchell from the BCS, “by 2020 we are likely to see the number of students studying computing at GCSE halve, when it should be doubling. If that happens, it will be a disaster for our children, and the future of the nation.”

Source: Computing in schools – alarm bells over England’s classes – BBC News

July 12, 2017 at 7:00 am 2 comments

From Design of Everyday Things to Teaching of Everyday People: Human error? Student error? No, Bad Design

We have to accept human behavior the way it is, not the way we would wish it to be.

Continue Reading June 26, 2017 at 7:00 am 19 comments

Belief in the Geek Gene may be driven by Economics and Educational Inefficiency, plus using blocks to cross language boundaries

I visited China in the first part of May. I was at Peking University (PKU) in Beijing for a couple days, and then the ACM Celebration of the Turing Award in China (TURC) in Shanghai. I mentioned the trip in this earlier blog post. I wrote a blog post for CACM on a great panel at TURC. The panelists discussed the future of AI, and I asked about the implications for computing education. Are we moving to a future where we can’t explain to students the computing in their daily lives?

A highlight of my trip was spending a day with students and teachers at PKU. I taught a seminar with 30+ advanced undergraduates with Media Computation (essentially doing my TEDxGeorgiaTech talk live). It was great fun. I was surprised to learn that several of them had learned programming first in high school in Pascal. Pascal lives as a pedagogical programming language in China!

Perhaps the most striking part of my seminar with the undergraduates was how well the livecoding examples worked (e.g., I wrote and manipulated code as part of the talk).  All the PKU students knew Java, most knew C++, some knew Python — though I knew none of that when I was planning my talk. I wanted to use a tool that would cross programming language boundaries and be immediately understandable if you knew any programming languages. I used a blocks-based language.  I did my livecoding demonstration entirely in GP. I tested their knowledge, too, asking for predictions (as I do regularly, having read Eric Mazur’s work on predictions before demos) and explanations for those predictions.  They understood the code and what was going on. The funky sound and image effects cross language barriers.  Students laughed and oohed at the results.  Isn’t that remarkable that it worked, that I could give a livecoding demonstration in China and get evidence that the students understood it?

The most interesting session at PKU was talking with faculty interested in education about their classes and issues. I’ve always wondered what it’s like for students to learn programming when English is not their native language, and particularly, when the characters are very different. I asked, “Is it harder for your students to learn programming when the characters and words are all English?” The first faculty to speak up insisted that it really wasn’t an issue. “Our students start learning English at age 6!” said one. But then some of the other faculty spoke up, saying that it really was a problem, especially for younger students. In some middle schools, they are using Squeak with Chinese characters. They told me that there was at least one programming language designed to use Chinese characters, but the other faculty scoffed. “Yi is not a real programming language.” There was clearly some disagreement, and I didn’t follow all the nuances of the argument.

Then the Geek Gene came up in the conversation. One of the most senior faculty in the room talked about her challenges in teaching computer science. “Some students are just not suited to learning CS,” she told me. I countered with the evidence of researchers like Elizabeth Patitsas that there is no “Geek Gene.” I said, “We have no evidence that there are students who can’t learn programming.” She had an effective counter-argument.

“We do not have all the time in the world. We cannot learn everything in our lifetime. How much of a lifetime should a student spend learning programming? There are some students who cannot learn programming in the time available. It’s not worth it for them.”

I had not thought of the Geek Gene as being an economic issue. Her argument for the Geek Gene is not necessarily that students cannot learn programming. They may not be able to learn programming in the time available and using the methods we have available. This is not Geek Gene as only some students can learn to program. This is Geek Gene as economic limitation — we can’t teach everyone in the resources available.

I have an answer to that one. Want to reach more students? Either expand the time it will take to teach them, or use more effective methods!  This is the same response that I had offered to my colleague, as I described in an earlier blog post.

That insight gave me a whole new reason for doing our work in efficient CS education, like the greater efficiency in using subgoal-based instruction. The work of Paul Kirschner and Mike Lee & Andy Ko also emphasizes more CS learning in less time. If we can teach the same amount of CS in less time, then we can expand the number of students who can learn enough CS with a given amount of resource (typically, time). If we can’t convince teachers that there is no Geek Gene, maybe we can give them more effective and efficient teaching methods so that they see fewer students who don’t seem have the Geek Gene, i.e., who can learn enough CS in a single semester.

Below, evidence I was really at TURC

June 5, 2017 at 7:00 am 8 comments

Hidden Figures of “Computer Science for All”

Nice piece by Ruthe on some of the heroes of the effort to make CS education available to everyone.

You might have noticed computer science and “coding” have become the cause du jour. Celebrities and athletes, governors and mayors, tech icons, and media giants have come out in support of reinvigorating K-12 computer science education in US schools. Coding is now a commonly known term and in January 2016, building on the momentum from the community, President Obama announced the Computer Science for All (CSforAll) initiative, a bold national call to make rigorous computer science (CS) education available to all American students and partner initiatives have formed nationwide including CS4TX, CS4RI, CodeVA and many more. CSforAll is here to stay.

Like every social movement in history, this change didn’t materialize overnight – and like the great social movements that have shaped our country – women have been integral to this movement. I am honored to present just a few of the “Hidden Figures” of K-12 computer science education.

Source: Hidden Figures of “Computer Science for All”

May 10, 2017 at 7:00 am Leave a comment

Older Posts


Recent Posts

July 2017
M T W T F S S
« Jun    
 12
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
31  

Feeds

Blog Stats

  • 1,410,054 hits

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 5,107 other followers

CS Teaching Tips