## Posts tagged ‘elementary school’

### Elementary School Computer Science – Misconceptions and Developmental Progressions: Papers from SIGCSE 2017

March 8-11, Seattle hosted the ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium for 2017. This was the largest SIGCSE ever, with over 1500 attendees. I was there and stayed busy (as I described here). This post isn’t a trip report. I want to talk about two of my favorite papers (and one disappointing one) that I’ve read so far.

We are starting to gather evidence on what makes elementary school computer science different than undergraduate computer science. Most of our research on learning programming and computer science is from undergraduates, published in SIGCSE venues. We know relatively little about elementary school students, and it’s obvious that it’s going to be different. But how?

Shuchi Grover and Satabdi Basu of SRI are starting to answer that question in their paper “Measuring Student Learning in Introductory Block-Based Programming: Examining Misconceptions of Loops, Variables, and Boolean Logic.” They looked at the problems that 6th, 7th, and 8th graders had when programming in Scratch. They’re reporting on things that I’ve never heard of before as misconceptions at the undergraduate level. Like this quote:

Students harbored the misconception that a variable is a letter that is used as a short form for an unknown number – an idea that comes from middle school mathematics classes. Together, this led students to believe that repeat(NumberOfTimes) was a new command. One student conjectured it was a command for multiplication by 5 (the value of NumberOfTimes), while another thought it would print each number five times… After being told that NumberOfTimes was indeed a variable, the students could correctly predict the program output, though they continued to take issue with the length of the variable name.

I find their description believable and fascinating. Their paper made me realize that middle school students are expending cognitive load on issues like multi-character variable names that probably no computer scientist even considered. That’s a real problem, but probably fixable — though the fix might be in the mathematics classes, as well as in the CS classes.

The paper that most impressed me was from Diana Franklin’s group, “Using Upper-Elementary Student Performance to Understand Conceptual Sequencing in a Blocks-based Curriculum.” They’re studying over 100 students, and starting to develop general findings about what works at each of these grade levels. Three of their findings are quoted here:

Finding 1: Placing simple instructions in sequence and using simple events in a block-based language is accessible to 4th-6th grade students.

Finding 2: Initialization is challenging for 4th and 5th grade students.

Finding 3: 6th grade students are more precise at 2-dimension navigation than 4th and 5th grade students.

I’ve always suspected that there was likely to be an interaction between a student’s level of cognitive development and what they would likely be able to do in programming, given how much students are learning about abstraction and representation at these ages. Certainly, programming might influence cognitive development. It’s important to figure out what we might expect.

That’s what Diana’s group is doing. She isn’t saying that fourth grader’s can’t initialize variables and properties. She’s saying it’s challenging for them. Her results are likely influenced by Scratch and by how the students were taught — it’s still an important result. Diana’s group is offering a starting point for exploring these interactions and understanding what we can expect to be easy and what might be hard for the average elementary school student at different ages.  There may be studies that also tell us about developmental progressions in countries that are ahead of the US in elementary school CS (e.g., maybe Israel or Germany). This is the first study of its kind that I’ve read.

SIGCSE 2017 introduced having Best Paper awards in multiple categories and Exemplary Paper awards. I applaud these initiatives. Other conferences have these kinds of awards. The awards helps our authors stand out in job searches and promotion time.

To be really meaningful awards, though, SIGCSE has to fix the reviewing processes. There were hiccups in this year’s reviewing where there wasn’t much of a match between reviewer expertise and the paper’s topic. The hiccups led to papers with significant flaws getting high rankings.

The Best Paper award in the Experience Report category was “Making Noise: Using Sound-Art to Explore Technological Fluency.” The authors describe a really nifty idea. They implement a “maker” kind of curriculum. One of the options is that students get toys that make noise then modify and reprogram them. The toys already work, so it’s about understanding a system, then modifying and augmenting it. The class sounds great, but as Leah Buchele has pointed out, “maker” curricula can be overwhelmingly male. I was surprised that this award-winning paper doesn’t mention females or gender — at all. (There is one picture of a female student in the paper.) I understand that it’s an Experience Report, but gender diversity is a critical issue in CS education, particularly with maker curricula. I consider the omission of even a mention of gender to be a significant flaw in the paper.

### ICER 2015 Report: Blocks win–Programming Language Design == UI Design

ICER 2015 at the University of Nebraska, Omaha was fantastic.  Brian Dorn did a terrific job hosting all of us.

The Doctoral Consortium went really well.  We had 20 students from US, Chile, Germany, and UK.  Below is a picture from the “Up against the wall bubble sort” where experienced students went to one side, and newer students went to the other, and the former gave advice to the latter.

Georgia Tech had even more going on at ICER and RESPECT than I mentioned in my earlier blog posts (like here and here).  The GVU Center did a nice write up about all of us here.  The biggest thrill at ICER for the GT crowd was Briana Morrison receiving the Chairs Award (one of two best paper awards at ICER) for the paper that I blogged about here.  Below is the whole GT contingent at ICER (including chair Brian Dorn, GT alum).

The other best paper award, the peoples’ choice John Henry Award, went to Kristin Searle and Yasmin Kafai (see paper here) about the e-textiles work with American Indians that I blogged about here.  Kristin had so many interesting insights, like the boys in her project telling her that “I don’t own” the projects they made because they felt no ownership over the programming environment they were using.

The quality of the papers was very good (you can see the list of all of them here).  My favorite paper from my review packet was presented Monday morning, Spatial Skills in Introductory Computer Programming.  Steve Cooper and Sheryl Sorby with two undergraduates at Stanford did the study that I’ve been wanting to see for ages (see blog post where I talk about it). Training an experimental group in spatial skills improved performance over a control group.  Surprisingly, SES and race differences disappeared in the experimental group!  This is an important result.

But one session blew me away — it changed how I think about blocks programming.

• The first paper was from Thomas Price and Tiffany Barnes showing that students using blocks were able to achieve programming tasks faster than those using text, but with no difference in learning or attitudes afterwards (paper here).  This was an interesting result, but it was a limited study (short intervention, no pre-test) so it mostly supported a finding from Chris Hundhausen from years previous that graphical, direct-manipulation languages lead to faster start-up than text languages (see paper here).
• David Weintrop presented his remarkable paper with Uri Wilensky (see paper here).  Below is the graph that changed my thinking about blocks.  David carefully developed an isomorphic test in blocks and text, and gave it to the same population.  Students did much better on the blocks-based test. MODALITY MATTERS!  Blocks and text are not equivalent. He did careful analyses at each level of the test. For example, David replicated the result that else clauses in text are really hard for novices (which I talked about here), but students perform much better in blocks-based if-else.

• Diana Franklin presented their paper describing fourth graders reading Scratch programs (see paper here).  I was expecting a paper on program comprehension — it wasn’t.  Instead, it was a paper about user interfaces, and how the user interface interfered or supported students exploring and coming to understand the program.

I came away from that three papers realizing that blocks programming is likely the best modality to use in elementary school programming, and perhaps even when starting to program in high school, and maybe even for end-user programmers.  But even more important, I realized that Amy Ko’s comments about programming languages as being a powerful and unusable user interface (see her blog post here) is the critical insight about programming today.  David showed us that blocks can dramatically increase readability of programs.  Diana showed us that the user interface dramatically influences the readability of the blocks.  At the novice programming level, blocks-based languages are the most promising direction today, and designing good blocks languages is as much a user interface design problem as it is a programming language design problem.