Posts tagged ‘high school CS’

An Analysis of Supports and Barriers to Offering Computer Science in Georgia Public High Schools: Miranda Parker’s Defense

Miranda Parker defends her dissertation this Thursday.  It’s a really fascinating story, trying to answer the question: Why does a high school in Georgia decide (or not) to offer computer science?  She did a big regression analysis, and then four detailed case studies.  Readers of this blog will know Miranda from her guest blog post on the Google-Gallup polls, her SCS1 replication of the multi-lingual and validated measure of CS1 knowledge, her study of teacher-student differences in using ebooks, and her work exploring the role of spatial reasoning to relate SES and CS performance (work that was part of her dissertation study). I’m looking forward to flying down to Atlanta and being there to cheer her on to the finish.

Title: An Analysis of Supports and Barriers to Offering Computer Science in Georgia Public High Schools

Miranda Parker
Human-Centered Computing Ph.D. Candidate
School of Interactive Computing
College of Computing
Georgia Institute of Technology

Date: Thursday, October 10, 2019

Time: 10AM to 12PM EST

Location: 85 5th Street NE, Technology Square Research Building (TSRB), 2nd floor, Room 223

Committee:

Dr. Mark Guzdial (Advisor), School of Interactive Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology
Dr. Betsy DiSalvo, School of Interactive Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology
Dr. Rebecca E. Grinter, School of Interactive Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology
Dr. Willie Pearson, Jr., School of History and Sociology, Georgia Institute of Technology
Dr. Leigh Ann DeLyser, CSforAll Consortium

Abstract:

There is a growing international movement to provide every child access to high-quality computing education. Despite the widespread effort, most children in the US do not take any computing classes in primary or secondary schools. There are many factors that principals and districts must consider when determining whether to offer CS courses. The process through which school officials make these decisions, and the supports and barriers they face in the process, is not well understood. Once we understand these supports and barriers, we can better design and implement policy to provide CS for all.

In my thesis, I study public high schools in the state of Georgia and the supports and barriers that affect offerings of CS courses. I quantitatively model school- and county-level factors and the impact these factors have on CS enrollment and offerings. The best regression models include prior CS enrollment or offerings, implying that CS is likely sustainable once a class is offered. However, large unexplained variances persist in the regression models.

To help explain this variance, I selected four high schools and interviewed principals, counselors, and teachers about what helps, or hurts, their decisions to offer a CS course. I build case studies around each school to explore the structural and people-oriented themes the participants discussed. Difficulty in hiring and retaining qualified teachers in CS was one major theme. I frame the case studies using diffusion of innovations providing additional insights into what attributes support a school deciding to offer a CS course.

The qualitative themes gathered from the case studies and the quantitative factors used in the regression models inform a theory of supports and barriers to CS course offerings in high schools in Georgia. This understanding can influence future educational policy decisions around CS education and provide a foundation for future work on schools and CS access.

October 7, 2019 at 7:00 am Leave a comment

Social studies teachers programming, when high schools choose to teach CS, and new models of cognition and intelligence in programming: An ICER 2019 Preview

My group will be presenting two posters at ICER this year.

  • Bahare Naimipour (Engineering Education Research PhD student at U-Michigan) will be presenting our participatory design session with social studies educators, Helping Social Studies Teachers to Design Learning Experiences Around Data–Participatory design for new teacher-centric programming languages. We had 18 history and economics teachers building data visualizations in either Vega-Lite or JavaScript with Google Charts. Everyone got the starter visualization running and made changes that they wanted in less than 20 minutes. Those who started in Vega-Lite also tried out the JavaScript code, but only about 1/4 of the JS groups moved to Vega-Lite successfully.
  • Miranda Parker (Human-Centered Computing PhD student at Georgia Tech) will be presenting her quantitative model explaining about half of the variance in whether Georgia high schools taught CS in 2016, A Statewide Quantitative Analysis of Computer Science: What Predicts CS in Georgia Public High School. The most important factor was whether the school taught CS the year before, suggesting that overcoming inertia is a big deal — it’s easier to sustain a CS program than start one. She may talk a little about her new qualitative work, where she’s studying four schools as case studies about their factors in choosing to teach CS, or not.

Barbara is co-author on a paper, A Spaced, Interleaved Retrieval Practice Tool that is Motivating and Effective, with Iman Yeckehzaare and Paul Resnick . This is about a spaced practice tool that 32% of the students in an introductory programming course used more than they needed to, and the number of hours of use had a measurable positive effect on the final exam grade.

All of our other papers were rejected this year, but we’re in good company — the accept rate was around 18%. But I do want to talk about a set of papers that will be presented by others at ICER 2019. These are papers that I heard about, then I asked the authors for copies. I’m excited about all three of them.

How Do Students Talk About Intelligence? An Investigation of Motivation, Self-efficacy, and Mindsets in Computer Science by Jamie Gorson and Eleanor O’Rourke (see released version of the paper here)

One of the persistent questions in computing education research is why growth mindset interventions are not always effective (see blog post here). We get hard-to-interpret results. I met Jamie and Nell at the Northwestern Symposium on Computer Science and the Learning Sciences in April (amazing event, see here for more details). Nell worked with Carol Dweck during her graduate studies.

Jamie and Nell found mixed mindsets among the CS students that they studied. Some of the students they studied had growth mindsets about intelligence, but their talk about programming practices showed more fixed mindset characteristics. Other students self-identified as having some of both growth and fixed mindset beliefs.

In particular, some students talked about intelligence in CS in ways that are unproductive when it came to the practice of programming. For example, some students talked about the best programmers as being able to write the whole code in one sitting, or never getting any errors. A more growth mindset approach to programming would be evidenced by talking about building programs in pieces, expecting errors, and improving through effort over time.

This is a really helpful finding. It gives us new hypotheses to explore about why growth mindset interventions haven’t been as successful in CS as in other disciplines. Few disciplines have this strong distinction between their knowledge and their practice as acutely as we do in CS. It’s no wonder that we see these mixed mindsets.

Toward Context-Dependent Models of Productive Knowledge in Programming Cognition, by Brian A. Danielak

I’ve known Brian since he was a PhD student, and have been hoping that he’d start to publish some of his dissertation work. I got to read one chapter of it, and found it amazingly insightful. Brian explained how what we might see as a “random walk” of syntax was actually purposeful and rational behavior. I was excited to hear about this paper, and I enjoyed reading it.

It’s such an unusual paper for ICER! It’s empirical, but has no methods section. A big part of it is connecting to prior literature, but it’s not about a formal literature review.

Brian is making an argument about how we characterize knowledge and student success in CS. He points out that we often talk about students being wrong and having misconceptions, which is less productive than figuring out what they understand and where their alternative conceptions work or fail. I see his work following on to the work of Rich et al. (mentioned in this blog post) on CS learning trajectories. There are so many things to learn in CS, and sometimes, just getting started on the trajectory is a big step.

Spatial Encoding Strategy Theory: The Relationship between Spatial Skill and STEM Achievement by Lauren Margulieux.

Lauren is doing some impressive theoretical work here. She’s considering the work exploring the relationship between spatial reasoning and CS learning/performance, then constructs a theory explaining the observed results. Since it’s Lauren, the theory is thorough and covers well the known results in this space. I wrote her that I didn’t think that theory explains things that we expect are related to spatial reasoning, but we don’t yet have empirical evidence to support it. For example, when programmers simulate a program in their mind, their mental models may have a spatial component to them, but I don’t know of empirical work that explores that dimension of CS performance. But again, since it’s Lauren, I wouldn’t be surprised if her presentation addresses this point, beyond what was in the paper. (Also, read Lauren’s own summary of the paper here.)

I am looking forward to the discussion of these papers at ICER!

August 12, 2019 at 7:00 am Leave a comment

Analyzing CS in Texas school districts: Maybe enough to take root and grow

My Blog@CACM for this month is about Code.org’s decision to shift gradually the burden of paying for CS professional development to the local regions — see link here.  It’s an important positive step that needs to happen to make CS sustainable with the other STEM disciplines in K-12 schools.

We’re at an interesting stage in CS education. 40-70% of high schools have CS, but the classes are pretty empty.  I use Indiana and Texas as examples because they’ve made a lot of their data available.  Let’s drill a bit into the Texas data to get a flavor of it, available here.  I’m only going to look at Area 1’s data, because even just that is deep and fascinating.

Brownsville Intermediate School District. 13,941 students. 102 in CS.

Computer_Science_Regional_Data___STEM_Center___The_University_of_Texas_at_Austin

Of the 10 high schools in Brownsville ISD, only two high schools have anyone in their CS classes.  Brownsville Early College High School has 102 students in CS Programming (no AP CS Level A, no AP CSP).  That probably means that one teacher has several sections of that course — that’s quite a bit.  The other high school, Porter Early College High School has fewer than five students in AP CS A.  My bet is that there is no CS teacher there, only five students doing an on-line class.  That means for 10 high schools and 13K students, there is really only one high school CS teacher.

Edinburg Consolidated Independent School District, over 10K students, 92 students in CS.

Computer_Science_Regional_Data___STEM_Center___The_University_of_Texas_at_Austin-3

This is a district that could grow CS if there was will.  There are 6 high schools, but two are special cases: One with less than 5 students, and the other in a juvenile detention center.  The other four high schools are huge, with over 2000 students each.  In Economedes, that are only 9 students in AP CS A — maybe just on-line?  Edinburg North and Robert R Vela high school each have two classes: AP CS A and CS1.  With 21 and 14, I’m guessing two sections.  The other has 43 and 6. That might be two sections of AP CS A and another of CS1, or two sections of AP CS A and 6 students in an on-line class.  In any case, this suggests two high school CS teachers (maybe three) in half of the high schools in the district.  Those teachers aren’t teaching only CS, but with increased demand and support from principals, the CS offerings could grow.

It’s fascinating to wander through the Texas data, to see what’s there and what’s not.  I could be wrong about what’s there, e.g., maybe there’s only one teacher in Edinburg and she’s moving from school-to-school.  Given these data, there’s unlikely to be a CS teacher in every high school, who just isn’t teaching any CS. These data are a great snapshot. There is CS in Texas high schools, and maybe there’s enough there to take root and grow.

 

October 19, 2018 at 7:00 am 2 comments

High School CS Teacher’s Experience like University CS Teacher’s: “Code Shock”

Jeff Yearout has been teaching for over 25 years, and is just in his second year of teaching CS.  His concerns in his blog echo many of the same ones that I hear from higher-education CS teachers, e.g., dealing with the wide variance of students, and getting all students to engage around code (pseudo or otherwise).

I think one of the hardest things to manage in designing a curriculum is how to dial the difficulty up at a proper pace for the “center mass” of the class skill level. And in this new curriculum from PLTW this particular unit starts out manageable, but suddenly shoots up rapidly, thus the “code shock” mentioned above. I also have the challenge of having a lot of kids in class who simply don’t want to interact in class when, for instance, I’m working through pseudocode on the board.

From “Teaching CS is Hard

April 9, 2018 at 7:00 am 4 comments

What universities can do to prepare more Computer Science teachers? Evidence from UTeach

UTeach has published a nice blog post that explains (with graphs!) the ideas that I alluded to in my Blog@CACM post from last month.  While currently CS teacher production is abysmal, UTeach prepared CS teachers tend to stay in their classrooms for more years than I might have expected.  More, there is evidence that suggests that there is significant slice of the CS undergraduate population that would consider becoming teachers if the conditions were right.  There is hope to imagine that we can making produce more CS teachers, if we work from the University side of the equation.  Working from the in-service side is too expensive and not sustainable.

Michael Marder, Professor of Physics and Executive Director of UTeach, and Kim Hughes, Director of the UTeach Institute, write…

The number of computer science and computer science education teachers prepared per year is smaller than for any other STEM subject — even engineering and physics — and while estimates vary, it is safe to say it is on the order of 100 to 200 per year, compared to the thousands of biology or general science teachers prepared. 

The U.S. has around 24,000 public and 10,000 private high schools. Only 10% to 25% have been offering computer science, so to provide all of them with at least one teacher at the current rate simply looks impossible.

Source: What universities can do to prepare more Computer Science teachers

January 5, 2018 at 7:00 am Leave a comment

Prediction: The majority of US high school students will take CS classes online #CSEdWeek

The Washington Post got it wrong when it announced that Virginia is the first state to mandate CS education for all students.  South Carolina has had that mandate for 30 years.  But they couldn’t prepare enough teachers to teach computer science, so they took classes they were already teaching (like “keyboarding”) and counted those as CS classes.

Virginia could fall into the same trap, but I don’t think so.  Instead, I predict that most Virginia high school students will take CS on-line (and that likely goes for the rest of the US, too).  I was struck by how the Richmond-Times Dispatch described the vote to mandate CS (below quoted from here):

The standards, approved unanimously, but reluctantly, by the state Board of Education on Thursday, are a framework for computer science education in the state. Other states have advisory standards, but Virginia became the first to have mandatory standards.

Board member Anne Holton voiced her concern with the grade level appropriateness of the standards before the vote.

“The standards, they seem ambitious to me,” she said. “These are not meant as aspirational standards, they are meant as a mandate that our teachers need to be able to teach.”

“We’re clearly leading the nation and that puts an extra burden on us to get it right.”

Mark Saunders, the director of the Education Department’s Office of Technology and Virtual Learning, led a presentation of the department’s process in adopting the standards.

The presentation satisfied the board enough to vote on the standards rather than delay action until January.

I’m reading between the lines here, but I’m guessing the process went something like this: Board members balked at a statewide mandate because they knew they didn’t have the teachers to support it. There certainly are CS teachers in Virginia, many of them prepared by CodeVA. But not enough to support a statewide mandate. Then they were assured that the Virtual Learning system could handle the load, so they voted for it (“reluctantly” as the article says).

I don’t know that anybody’s tracking this, but my guess is that it’s already the case that most high school students studying CS in the United States are doing it online.  Since we are not producing enough new CS teachers, the push to grow CS education in high schools is probably going to push more CS students online. This is how schools in Arkansas and other states are meeting the requirements for schools to offer CS — simply make the virtual high school CS course available, and you’ve met the requirement. No teacher hiring or professional learning required.  I know from log file analyses that we are seeing huge numbers of students coming into our ebooks through virtual high school classes.

What are the ramifications of this trend?  We know that not everyone succeeds in online classes, that they tend to have much higher withdrawal and failure rates. We know that most people learn best with active learning (see one of my posts on this), and we do not yet know how to replicate active learning methodologies in online classes.  In particular, lecture-based learning (which is what much of online learning attempts to replicate) works best for the most privileged studentsOur society depends on teachers who motivate students to persevere and learn. Does serving high school CS through online classes increase accessibility, or decrease diversity of those who successfully complete high school CS classes?  Will students still be interested in pursuing CS in the future if their only experience is through a mandated online course?  Does the end result of mostly-online high school CS classes serve the goals of high-quality CS education for all students?

 

December 4, 2017 at 7:00 am 3 comments

White House Backs CS for All: Giving Every Student an Opportunity to Learn Through Computer Science For All

I don’t usually blog on a Saturday, but this is huge.

In this week’s address, the President discussed his plan to give all students across the country the chance to learn computer science (CS) in school.  The President noted that our economy is rapidly shifting, and that educators and business leaders are increasingly recognizing that CS is a “new basic” skill necessary for economic opportunity. The President referenced his Computer Science for All Initiative, which provides $4 billion in funding for states and $100 million directly for districts in his upcoming budget; and invests more than $135 million beginning this year by the National Science Foundation and the Corporation for National and Community Service to support and train CS teachers.  The President called on even more Governors, Mayors, education leaders, CEOs, philanthropists, creative media and technology professionals, and others to get involved in the efforts.

Source: Weekly Address: Giving Every Student an Opportunity to Learn Through Computer Science For All | whitehouse.gov

January 30, 2016 at 9:47 am 9 comments

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