Posts tagged ‘public policy’

6 Stories of Failure in Changing Higher Education: Misunderstanding Organizational Context

Last month, I had a birthday. It was not one of those big end-with-a-zero birthdays, but it was still notable. I can now get “senior” discounts from my local grocer. That’s something. Coincidentally, this month also begins my 25th year at Georgia Tech.

I’ve been reading about failure CV’s, a list of the usually-invisible things that go wrong in an academic’s career. The goal is to show that failure is quite common and that success is often a matter of luck. I’m not sure I can remember all my failed papers and proposals. I can remember a list of failures that relate to both my “senior” age and my years at Georgia Tech.

Below is a list of stories where I failed in an organizational context. In each of these, I proposed something that didn’t fly because I didn’t understand the organizational structure of higher education in general and Georgia Tech specifically. This isn’t a comprehensive list. I failed a lot more than this! I’m picking stories that offer lessons I’ve learned about the challenges of making educational initiatives in higher education, especially ones that I expect are useful in other organizations. I’m listing these in roughly chronological order.

Short form: Other computing educators may want to try these things. Didn’t work for me, and here’s why. Avoid my mistakes.

Entrepreneurial activity in education research often requires organization action or change, like new courses, new degree programs, adopting new teaching practices, or starting to teach a new population. I’ve been successful at some of this, like starting the Media Computation class and offering a variety of learning opportunities through “Georgia Computes!” Think of the stories in this list as startup ideas or business plans that don’t convince venture capitalists. These didn’t take off because I didn’t understand the market or the investors.

Side note: I’m also writing this for catharsis. Failures in organizational contexts are more painful than proposal or paper rejections. First, organizational failures are not anonymous — you are associated with the proposal, and you usually get the “no” to your face. Second, they gnaw at me. Could it have gone differently if I’d pitched it differently? To a different person? Maybe I could pitch it today and it would be different? Or is too late because the organization remembers that I already had my shot?

Story #1: A Computer Science Education Research Center

About 15 years ago, I wrote a memo proposing a Computer Science Education Research Center. (Yes, I still have it.) We had (and have) great computing education researchers, a large cohort of instructional faculty, and tons of students. The idea was to identify problems in the classrooms, develop solutions collaboratively between tenure-track faculty researchers and instructional faculty, try them out in the classrooms, and then publish and iterate. It was all about using our classrooms and students as a giant design-based research laboratory.

I’ve seen this work at places like UCSD, Duke, Stanford, and U. Toronto. It didn’t fly here, for reasons that are obvious in hindsight. The instructional faculty did not want tenure-track faculty telling them how to teach. The tenure-track faculty do not understand everything that it takes to keep huge classrooms running week-after-week, semester-after-semester. What happens when there are disagreements? There would likely be an awkward tension because of power relationships between tenure-track and instructional faculty.

The instructional faculty at Georgia Tech’s College of Computing have been overwhelmingly helpful with our Computing Education Research. Between encouraging their students to participate in our experiments, to letting us into their classrooms for observations, our lecturers and instructors support computing education research. I deeply appreciate their support. But it’s too big of an ask to have instructors change their teaching practice, or harder still, to implement an intervention in one semester and deny the intervention to another section of the same class (as a control/comparison).

I think it works at UCSD, Duke, Stanford, and U. Toronto because the instructional faculty are the computing education researchers. Changing your own courses for reasons you appreciate and value is different than doing it because researchers in a Center ask it of you. Doing it collaboratively (maybe even using some classes as control/comparisons) can lead to great research. It doesn’t work as well when the change comes from someone(s) other than the teacher.

In the end, what I proposed flew in the face of academic freedom. That faculty can teach using the methods that they think is best is a core principal in academic freedom. That’s a big part of what makes this job attractive. With rising numbers of students to teach and too few CS PhD’s becoming academics these days, we need to make the job more attractive, not add more restrictions.

Story #2: The Weight of Teacher Development Regulations

During the early years of Georgia Computes!, we realized that preparing more computing teachers was going to be critical to success. Barbara and I were part of a statewide committee to create a computer science teacher endorsement. I wanted Georgia Tech to offer computer science education classes towards certification for teachers with a goal of being a provider for the endorsement. I was particularly eager for us to use on-line learning technologies, so that teachers in other states (maybe even in other countries?) might use this program. I was sure that the name of “Georgia Tech” would help to sell the program to teachers.

My Chair (head of my School) told me that it was a bad idea, and he would not support my proposal. His reasoning was simple — we didn’t have a School of Education. Any kind of program that leads to a teaching certification involves a lot of regulation and paperwork. Georgia Tech didn’t have any programs like that. The regulatory and bureaucratic costs would have been totally new and likely large.

He was right. Three Universities eventually offered the endorsement in Georgia. All three did it through a collaboration between the Computer Science departments and existing Schools of Education. If your university is already doing teacher certification, adding computer science is a marginal cost. If your university wasn’t, you likely don’t know what you’re getting into. Now that I know more about how different states handle teacher certification, I realize how much of the process is defined by state regulation and legislation. I should have figured out the cost of my proposal before I made it.

Story #3: Apprenticeship and Conscience over Diversity Efforts

Several years ago, I became aware of teaching practices in one of our classes that I believed were likely impacting retention of female students (as mentioned in this blog post). I didn’t have any evidence that the practices were impacting retention. I critiqued the practices as an opinion of a researcher who studies diversity in computing education. I wanted to change our teaching practices in introductory CS courses in order to improve retention of women following recommendations of groups like NCWIT. I was unsuccessful.

When I first realized that there was a problem, I approached senior tenure-track faculty in my school. I described the practices I was concerned with — and they were unconcerned. The practices I described were pretty common in industry. But what about changing practices, maybe changing industry, trying to make industry more welcoming for women? I was running into a conflict that I’d seen in my faculty workshops. There are five common perspectives on what a teacher should be. I tend to take a “social reform” perspective (let’s use school to change society) or a “developmental” perspective (let’s start from where students are). But the most common teaching perspective among the CS faculty I’ve queried is “apprenticeship” — the job of the CS teacher is to model good software development behavior and to coach students in following those practices. In that perspective, it’s more important to teach current industry practice than to try to change what’s in industry. One perspective is not better than the other. “Apprenticeship” is a valid perspective for teaching CS, and I get the argument.

I had lunch with one of our most senior instructors, and I raised my concerns. He told me that he was worried about women going into the Tech industry. He went on to talk about the working conditions and how there were much better jobs for women. I was angry, thinking that he was saying that women couldn’t do these jobs or didn’t belong in Computing. I later reflected on what he said, and realized that my first reaction was wrong.

He was having a crisis of conscience, I now believe. Our instructors pay attention to what’s going on at Uber and at Google much more than the average tenure-track faculty. The instructors see their jobs as producing students who will go work in the Tech industry. My colleague was saying that he didn’t want to send women there, given how they’d be treated and what the Tech industry is like.

I don’t know what to tell him. When I tell women this story, they often ask, “Who is he to say what women should or shouldn’t do?” Fair response, but being concerned about what students should or shouldn’t do, or even having to decide who belongs and who should be encouraged to leave CS — that’s an occupational hazard of being a CS teacher. They make those decisions every day.

The lesson learned from this story is that I didn’t think hard enough about the forces that keep things the way they are, the motivations of the decision-makers. I didn’t think about my market before I pitched my product.

Story #4: The Tensions between State Governments and State Universities

In 2014, the Georgia Governor announced that he was making an initiative to push coding in Georgia’s schools (see my blog post here on that announcement). The next year, we had a terrific CS Education faculty candidate. My chair and I came up with an idea. We wanted to ask the Governor to fund an effort to innovate and promote coding in Georgia schools, building on our successful work in “Georgia Computes!” We wanted funding to hire this CS Ed candidate as part of this effort. We drew up a one-page pitch to the Provost, and a draft letter to the Governor (in our Provost’s name) to make the request. Our Dean took these to a face-to-face meeting with the Provost.

The next day, my chair and I received a reprimand from the upper administration for contacting the Governor without permission! Somewhere there was a misunderstanding, because we had not contacted anyone in state government. My chair cleared things up with the Provost, and we learned why there was such a strong reaction.

I had not realized how sensitive relationships are these days between state universities and state governments. States are providing less funding to their universities. Universities are understandably careful about what they ask for. Georgia Tech desperately needed a new building at the time. The Provost did not want to send mixed signals to the state government. For example, he didn’t want to give them the idea that the coding in Georgia initiative would be preferable to the building they needed.

I get it. Relations between state governments and universities are strained. You don’t want a rogue faculty member messing up the priorities, and you certainly have to be careful what you put on the wishlist. I didn’t realize that I was touching on such a sensitive negotiation.

Story #5: Teaching High School Students does not pay for MOOCs

Last year, I decided the best chance to get computer science into Georgia’s rural high schools was not Advanced Placement but dual enrollment. I told this story on Blog@CACM. I started the process of building a MOOC that would be equivalent to our CS1315 Media Computation class to offer to Georgia high school students as dual enrollment. We already have distance Calculus offered to rural high schools from Georgia Tech, but that’s delivered via special video links. I wanted to do a MOOC so that it could be more widely available.

The head of distance learning said no. MOOCs are expensive to build. We only build them if we can see a way to cover those costs. We couldn’t recoup the costs if we offered the MOOC to high school students.

Turns out that the Georgia legislature has capped the amount that universities can charge for dual enrollment tuition, and that amount does not cover Georgia Tech’s costs for MOOC development and hosting. Our head of online learning is trying to get that changed, to get the cap raised. Offering a CS MOOC for dual enrollment under those conditions would be a bad move in that negotiation.

I understand the issue. While the OMS CS is famous for being inexpensive, it’s not free. The financial model that we have for online education doesn’t work for high school students, which does have to be essentially free. We are now offering an online MOOC-based CS1 for CS majors, but that was paid for by an external funder. Maybe if I found an external funder, Georgia Tech would be willing to let me develop the MOOC. However, even the new CS1 MOOC is not available to Georgia high school students for dual enrollment. The political issue has not been resolved.

The lesson here is (again) that I should have figured out the costs of my proposal before I pitched it. I should have also figured out the politics before we started. A 10 minute conversation with the head of online education would have saved weeks of planning.

Story #6: Education Research can be Dangerous for Well-Ranked Technical Institutions

Last Spring, I got the chance to visit three engineering education programs, all of which have engineering education PhD students. I wondered whether we could build something similar here. There are several efforts on our campus to study STEM education, to be innovative in STEM education, and to evaluate novel interventions. These efforts have graduate students, and it would be great to be able to offer them a graduate certificate or even a degree. I asked the Provost for a meeting to discuss creating a STEM education research graduate certificate or degree.

The Provost started the meeting saying that there would never be a degree or academic unit at Georgia Tech with the word “education” in the title. He explained that education research is outside the unique mission of Georgia Tech. There are other education programs in the University System of Georgia. They can do STEM education research. The Georgia Institute of Technology should focus on technological advances.

I told my Dean this story, and he gave me new insight into the Provost’s motivations. The Dean thought that “never” was too strong, but he did have a specific criteria about whether to back this kind of an effort. “Which of our peer institutions has a STEM education research graduate certificate?” Georgia Tech (and the College of Computing) is well ranked. You have to be careful with that kind of ranking. You want to innovate, but you don’t want to do things that might make your peers think you’re weakening your research focus. Education research might be perceived as taking resources from technological research. It would be okay to do, if we didn’t go first.

I had not really thought through how Deans and Provosts evaluated new programs. They have a sense of mission, and new program proposals are evaluated against that mission. I should have tried to figure out the criteria first, before I made my proposal.


After the last story, one of the other Deans kindly reached out me. He told me, “Never is a long time.” Institutions change. Missions evolve. I am a post-Full Professor (as I described here). He suggested that I wait. There will be more opportunities for change later.

So what does work for higher education change? There’s another whole blog post to write about how Media Computation, Threads, and Georgia Computes actually worked, but I can generalize as the inverse of the above failures. Before you make a pitch like one of these, think about the motivations of the decision-makers. “It will improve learning” is rarely motivating for a higher-education administrator. “It will improve retention” is also unlikely to win, unless the low retention rate is a cost (e.g., students failing a required class may mean more students re-take the class, which costs in future enrollments). Fixing a known problem, reducing costs, improving stature, bringing in additional resources, and increasing fame — those are motivators for administrators and other higher-education decision-makers.

Mitchel Resnick has a new book out on Lifelong Kindergarten (see Amazon link). The interview with him on NPR about the new book is terrific. I particularly like Mitchel’s final quote, and it’s an apt conclusion to these stories:

I sometimes describe myself as a short-term pessimist and a long-term optimist.

I know how difficult it is to shift systems and mindsets. But I see the needs of societies changing so much, that the kinds of approaches in the book make so much sense, that ultimately we’ll win out. It’s what keeps me going. I’ve dedicated my life to this.

October 9, 2017 at 7:00 am Leave a comment

Unpacking models of what the $USD1.3B might achieve in Computing Education: We need long-term vision and will

I wrote my Blog@CACM post for September on the massive investments in CS Education announced last week (see post here): $200M/year from the US Department of Education announced by the White House on Monday, then $300M over five years from the Tech industry announced on Tuesday. I have read analyses saying that the money isn’t really promised or isn’t new (see concerns in this post), and others are shunning the initiative because of White House policies (see link here). I took the promises at face value. My post starts congratulating Hadi Partovi and Cameron Wilson of and Ivanka Trump who were behind these initiatives, then I offered two back-of-the-envelope models of what $1.3B in five years could do:

  • I extrapolated the New York City model (of a significant computing education experience to every child in every school within grade bands) to the whole of the US, which would likely take more than a magnitude more funding.
  • The funding is enough to pay for a CS teacher in every school, but I argued that it wouldn’t really work. We face a shortage of STEM teachers, and those few are the teachers that we can most likely recruit to CS. CS teacher attrition is so high that we couldn’t keep up with the losses, since we have so few mechanisms of pre-service CS teacher preparation.

I received many responses, queries, and criticisms of that blog post (from email, Facebook, and Twitter).  I am explaining and unpacking the CACM blog post here. I am not going to delete or change the CACM blog post. My mentor, Janet Kolodner, told me once not to dwell on any paper, trying to make it a masterpiece before publishing it. Rather, she suggested that we should just keep publishing. Explore lots of ideas in lots of papers, and publish as a way of thinking with a community. It’s okay to publish something you thought was right, and later find that it’s wrong — it documents the explored trails.

What I learned about the effort in NYC

I said that NYC was aiming to provide a quality computing learning experience for every student in every grade in every school, as I learned last October (and blogged about it here). I learned that the goal is now mandating a computing learning experience in every grade band, so not every year. It’s still a markedly different model than one teacher per school, and doesn’t change the costs considerably.

I learned that (as one might expect) that the effort in NYC is in both the NYC Department of Education and in CSNYC. It’s great that there are many people in the NY DoEd working on CS education! I was told on Twitter that some of what I attributed to CSNYC is actually in NY Department of Education. I don’t know what I mis-attributed, but I’m sure that it’s because I get confounded over “CSNYC” representing “the effort to provide CS education across NYC” and “the organization that exists to provide CS education across NYC.” I don’t understand the split between NYC DoEd and the CSNYC organization, and I’m not going to guess here. I am sure that it’s important for the people involved, but it’s not so important for the model and national analysis.

Explaining my Estimates in Contrast to’s has made their model of the one-time cost of expanding access to K-12 computer science (CS) available at this Google doc. According to their model, it’s clear that the $1.3B is enough to make CS education available in every elementary and secondary school. They have more empirical data than anyone else on putting CS in whole districts, and their data suggest that costs are decreasing as they gain more efficiencies of scale.

Hadi challenged several points in my blog post on Facebook. I won’t replicate all of our exchange, and only include three points here:

  • I argue that we will probably have to pay future CS teachers more in the future, at least as teacher stipends. That prediction is based on trends I see in the states I work with and economics. States are facing teacher shortages, especially in STEM. Aman Yadav shared an article (see link here) that students studying to be teachers fell by 40% from the 2010-2011 academic year to the 2014-2015 academic year. If the supply of teachers is growing more slowly than the rate at which we’re trying to grow CS, we will have to provide incentives to make CS more attractive. Lijun Ni’s dissertation explored the barriers for teachers to become CS teachers (e.g., it’s a lot easier and more pleasant to stay a math teacher). Costs are likely to grow as the labor shortage increases.
  • Some of my costs are too high, e.g., I estimated the cost to develop a high school CS teacher as $10K, where NSF’s studies found it was closer to $8.6K. I used a ballpark 50% of high school CS teacher development for the costs of elementary school CS teacher development.  Since it’s clear that there is enough to prepare one CS teacher per school, I think my numbers are close enough.
  • I believe that extrapolating the NYC model across the country would be even more expensive than it is in NYC. Travel costs in NYC are much less than in rural America. While NYC is very diverse, the rest of the United States is just as diverse. I got to see Ann Leftwich at Indiana University on Saturday. She told me that some of the schools she works with resist teaching science at all! It’s really hard to convince them to teach CS. I expect that there is a similar lack of will to teach CS across the US.

Not all of my estimates are research-based. We don’t have research on everything. Changing all US schools happens so rarely that we do not have good models of how it works. I don’t think that the empirical data of what we have done before in CS Ed is necessarily predictive of what comes next, since most of our experience with CS Ed at-scale is in urban and suburban settings. Getting everywhere is harder. I have observed about “Georgia Computes!” — 1/3 of the high schools in GA got someone that Barbara trained in CS, and that’s likely the easiest 1/3. The next 2/3 will be harder and more expensive.

What I Missed Entirely

As Hadi correctly called me on, the biggest cost factor I missed is the development of curriculum. Back in July, I blogged about Larry Cuban’s analysis that suggested that we need to re-think how we are developing and disseminating CS curriculum in the United States (see link here). We have to develop a lot more curriculum in collaboration with schools, districts, and states nationwide. The US will never adopt a single curriculum nationwide for any subject — it’s not how our system was developed, and it’s why Common Core did not reach all 50 states. The US education system is always about tailoring, adapting, and working with local values and politics. Curriculum is always political.

Mike Zamansky just posted a blog post critiquing some of the curriculum he’s seeing in NYC (see post here). I don’t agree with Mike’s post, but I wholeheartedly agree with his posting. We should argue about curriculum, negotiate what’s best for our students, and create curriculum that works for local contexts.  There is going to be a lot of that nationwide as we take steps towards providing computing education to all students. The iteration and revision will be expensive, but it’s a necessary expense for sustainable, longterm computing education.

What should we do with the money

At a talk I gave at Indiana University on Friday, Katie Siek asked me my opinion. What do I want to see the funding be used for?

It would be great if some of that funding could start more pre-service CS teacher preparation programs. I have argued that we should fund chairs of CS Education in top Schools of Education (see post here). Germany uses this model — they create CS Education professors who will be there for a career, producing CS teachers, supporting local communities of CS teachers, and serving as national models. An endowed chair is $1-3M at most universities. That is not very expensive for a longterm impact.

I prefer an NYC-like model of reaching every student to the model of a teacher for every school. The data I’ve seen from our ECEP states suggests that most CS teachers teach only a single computing class, and that class is typically mostly white/Asian and male. One CS  teacher per school doesn’t reach all the female and under-represented minority students. Equity has to be a top priority in our choices for these funds, since CS education is so inequitable.

My greatest wish is for computational literacy to be woven into other disciplines, especially across all of STEM. I devoted my career to computing education because I believe in the vision of Seymour Papert, Cynthia Solomon, Alan Kay, and Andrea diSessa. Computational literacy can improve learning in science, mathematics, art, language, and other disciplines, too.

I don’t argue that computer science is more important than other STEM subjects. Rather, computing makes learning in all the other STEM subjects better.

I want us to teach real computational literacy across subjects, not just in the CS class hidden away, and not just in an annual experience. I recognize that that’s a long-term, expensive vision — probably two orders of magnitude beyond the current initiative. We need more long-term thinking in CS education, like building up the CS teacher development infrastructure and making the case to people nationwide for CS education. We are not going to solve CS for All quickly.

When the K-12 CS Framework effort launched back in 2015, I told the story here about a conversation I had with Mike Lach (see post here). He pointed out that the last time we changed all US schools, it was in response to the Civil Rights movement. That’s when we started celebrating MLK Jr Day and added African-American History month. He asked me to think about how much national will it took to make those changes happen. We don’t have that kind of national will in CS education in this country — yet. We have a lot more groundwork to do before we can reach CS education for all students or all schools, and funding alone is not going to get us there.

October 4, 2017 at 7:00 am 5 comments

White House announces $200 million a year for computer science – #CSforAll

Looking forward to hearing more details at’s webinar this afternoon.  Hadi Partovi posted on Facebook that the money will be provided as competitive grants to schools and non-profits through the Department of Education.  Hadi has written a personal blog post about his motivations in supporting this announcement.

The White House memorandum on the announcement is here. I don’t understand all the details here, and the details of the funding are important.  If it’s not new funding, then it puts CS in competition with other fields, e.g., if the money is set aside for CS when it was originally allocated for all of STEM.  The White House memorandum says, “Establish promotion of high-quality STEM education, with a particular focus on Computer Science, as a Department of Education priority.” If it’s a preference (e.g., a school gets money if and only if they’re teaching CS), it may hurt schools that can’t afford to teach CS yet because they’re stretched thin teaching literacy and mathematics.

Here’s the webinar information: (9/26) at 11am PT, 2pm ET
By web:
By phone: US: +1 646 558 8656 or +1 669 900 6833
Webinar ID: 783 490 509

Today, the White House announced a $200 million per year commitment to computer science education in America’s schools. Unlike similar proposals in previous years, today’s action delivers funding to schools, immediately. Besides expanding access to computer science in schools that previously didn’t teach it, the funds promise to increase participation by women and underrepresented minorities.This funding will jumpstart efforts to ensure every student in every school has the opportunity to learn computer science as part of a well-rounded education. For advocates of increased access and diversity in CS, this is the culmination of years of momentum that began in classrooms, spread to entire school districts, and won the support of business leaders and elected officials globally.

Source: $200 million a year for computer science – – Medium

September 26, 2017 at 7:00 am Leave a comment

The Negative Consequences of Brown v Board of Education: Integrating Computing Education

The second season of Revisionist History has just finished.  This season didn’t have the same multiple episodes with tight ties to the issues of education as last season (as I described in this blog post), there was one standout episode that does relate to our issues: Miss Buchanan’s Period of Adjustment.  The podcast deals with the negative consequences of the Brown v Board of Education Supreme Court case that declared that separate was not equal and forced schools to integrate.  The well-documented consequence of the integration was the closing of the schools for African-Americans and the firing of Black school teachers.  Gladwell first considers what the Brown family (named in the case) and the other families in the case actually wanted, and about the longterm impact that even today, there are disproportionately few African-American teachers in the US are African-American — and that leads to impacts on students.

When I studied Brown v Board of Education when I was a graduate student at the University of Michigan, we were taught a negative consequence that Gladwell barely touches on.  Gladwell mentions that there were few jobs for an educated Black person at the time of Brown v Board.  The Supreme Court’s decision, and the consequent firing of Black teachers, was an enormous blow to the African-American middle class in the United States.  Employment was lost at a large scale, and longterm impacts on wealth and prosperity can be measured today.

The connection to computer science education is part of the question of how do we reach everyone and help everyone to succeed.  Today’s computing education is de facto segregated — not in the sense of colored vs white classes, but in terms of only certain demographics are in CS classes and other demographics are not.

  • In many of the high schools we work with, even if white and Asian students are in the school population minority, the computer science classes are mostly white and Asian.
  • English CS classes are almost entirely male, maybe even more than in the US (described here).
  • US undergraduate CS classes don’t seem to be retaining women (blog post here).
  • classes have are almost half poor students (blog post here), and have excellent diversity (see their Medium post here). What are the rich students taking?  The diversity that is seeing is not reflected in undergraduate CS (see Generation CS report) which has little diversity and has mostly prosperous students. That’s important because undergraduate CS is the path that most students will take to the IT industry, which is mostly white/Asian and male.

How do we improve diversity in computing education?  Can we avoid a heavy-handed and expensive mandate like requiring CS for everyone? I side effect of requiring everyone to take CS might be that we get all the same kind of CS.  Can we provide equal access to everyone without the negative consequences that Gladwell describes from Brown v Board of Education?

Brown v Board of Education might be the most well-known Supreme Court decision, a major victory in the fight for civil rights. But in Topeka, the city where the case began, the ruling has left a bittersweet legacy. RH hears from the Browns, the family behind the story.

Source: Revisionist History Podcast

September 25, 2017 at 7:00 am 1 comment

Michigan is phasing out its computer science teaching endorsement

I’d heard that this was happening, but couldn’t believe it, until I saw the news reports.  While other states are ramping up computer science teacher certifications or endorsements, and schools are starting to offer programs for those certifications, Michigan is actually phasing it out.

Teachers who currently hold the endorsements will continue to see them displayed on their certificates and may continue to teach in those areas. However, starting in 2017-18, administrators will have discretion in assigning a teacher in those endorsement areas. For example, a teacher with a computer science endorsement may be assigned to teach computer science, or a district may employ a teacher without the endorsement who displays strong computer science skills.

Source: Some Teaching Endorsements Phasing Out – Michigan Education Association

August 4, 2017 at 7:00 am 9 comments

A Weak Argument that Silicon Valley is Pushing Coding Into American Classrooms through

When the New York Times does an article on, it’s worth noting.  I had my class on Computing and Society read the essay and critique it, and they were dubious.  They have a bias — they’re all Georgia Tech students in STEM, and almost all majoring in Computer Science.  They tend to think learning to code is a good thing.  Still, they were concerned about the article, with good reason.  They wondered, “Where exactly is doing something wrong?”

I had similar concerns. I read the quote from Jane Margolis (“It gets very problematic when industry is deciding the content and direction of public education”) and thought, “Jane didn’t just say that.  She would have explained what she meant by ‘problematic.'”  It felt to me like the quote was taken out of context.

Is really “deciding” what goes into public education?  Or are they simply influencing those who do decide?  Maybe Silicon Valley is having undue influence. This article didn’t really make the case.’s multilevel influence machine also raises the question of whether Silicon Valley is swaying public schools to serve its own interests — in this case, its need for software engineers — with little scrutiny. “If I were a state legislator, I would certainly be wondering about motives,” said Sarah Reckhow, an assistant professor of political science at Michigan State University. “You want to see public investment in a skill set that is the skill set you need for your business?”Mr. Partovi, 44, said he simply wanted to give students the opportunity to develop the same skills that helped him and his backers succeed. He immigrated as a child to the United States from Iran with his family, went on to study computer science at Harvard, and later sold a voice-recognition start-up he had co-founded to Microsoft for a reported $800 million.

“That dream is much less accessible if you are in one of America’s schools where they don’t even tell you you could go into that field,” Mr. Partovi said.

Even so, he acknowledged some industry self-interest. “If you are running a tech company,” he said, “it’s extremely hard to hire and retain engineers.”

July 28, 2017 at 7:00 am 5 comments

CS Curricula, Standards, and Frameworks will Need to Change: Larry Cuban and Coding as Vocationalism

I just wrote a blog@CACM post (see link) below on a series of essays that Stanford educational historian Larry Cuban has written on “Coding as the New Vocationalism.”  His points are well-taken.  Schools have often been swayed by the needs of industry, and he sees the current “CS for All” effort as mostly being industry-driven.  The questions that he keeps returning to in his posts are, “What are schools for? How does real reform happen?”

It’s the latter set of insights that I think are missing from our current “CS for All” efforts.  I quote Cuban at the bottom of this post with his summary for how reforms succeed. Top-down edicts on what ought to be taught rarely work.  Remember the U. Chicago’s Outlier group research on the landscape of CS education from 2014?  Most professional development is requested by the school or district,  but in CS Ed, professional development mostly sent in by NSF, Google, and Universities (and today, likely,  CS education will have to change to achieve the goal of being driven by district and teacher needs.

The most successful reform efforts are those that achieve the top-down goals in a process of mutual adaptation with teachers, an idea developed at Northwestern by a team of learning scientists led by Brian Reiser.

Whatever our curriculum, frameworks, and standards are today, they will change before we achieve CS for All.

Standards change in response to what teachers know, what we can actually teach them (at scale), and what they will actually teach (a process that has already happened in Georgia). We certainly can’t get the curriculum right yet — we’re decades away from reaching 100% of schools in any US state, with many, many teachers to prepare and to work with in a process of mutual adaptation.  I’m not opposed to defining curriculum, frameworks, and standards.  I’m opposed to thinking that we’re going to get it right — not today, when we have such a long road ahead of us.

The lessons that have to be learned time and again from earlier generations of school reformers are straightforward.

  • Build teacher capabilities in content and skills since both determine to what degree, if any, a policy gets past the classroom door.

  • With or without enhanced capabilities and expertise, teachers will adapt policies aimed at altering how and what they teach to the contours of the classrooms in which they teach. If policymakers hate teacher fingerprints over innovations, if they seek fidelity in putting desired reforms into practice, they wish for the impossible.

  • Ignoring both of the above lessons ends up with incomplete implementation of desired policies and sorely disappointed school reformers.

Source: Coding in Schools as New Vocationalism: Larry Cuban on What Schools are For | blog@CACM | Communications of the ACM

July 24, 2017 at 7:00 am 2 comments

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