Posts tagged ‘Seymour Papert’

A little bit of computing goes a long way, and not everyone needs software engineering: The SIGCSE 50th Anniversary issue of ACM Inroads

This year is the 50th SIGCSE Technical Symposium, and Jane Prey was guest editor for a special issue of ACM Inroads on 50 years of ACM SIGCSE. You can see the current issue here, but yes, it’s behind a paywall — ACM Inroads is meant to be a membership benefit.

I’m really fascinated by this issue. Sally Fincher does a nice job telling the story of ICER. I enjoyed Susan Rodgers’ and Valerie Barr’s reflections. I’m still trying to understand all of Zach Dodds’ references in his SIGCSE 2065 future-retrospective. I found some of the articles frustrating and disagreed with some of the claims (e.g., I don’t think it’s true that AP CS enrollments plummeted after introducing Java), but discussion can be good for the community.

I was asked to write a piece about What we care about now, and what we’ll care about in the future. My bottom line is a claim that John Maloney (of Squeak, Scratch, and GP fame) reminded me is a favorite phrase of the great Logo (and many other things) designer, Brian Silverman: A little bit of computing goes a long way.

The important part of Scratch is that computationalists find value in it, i.e., that they can make something that they care about in Scratch. What we see in Scratch is the same process we see among the computationalists in computational photography, journalism, and science. They don’t need all of computer science. They can find value and make something useful with just some parts of computing. Scratch projects smell wonderful to Scratch computationalists.

There’s been a thread on Twitter recently about the use of software engineering principles to critique Scratch projects (see the thread starting here). Researchers in software engineering claim that Scratch code “smells,” e.g., has bad practices associated with it. There’s even a website that will analyze your Scratch project in terms of these software engineering practices, DrScratch.  The website claims that it is measuring computational thinking skills — I see no evidence of that at all.

These software engineering researchers are misunderstanding users and genres of programming. They ought to read Turkle and Papert’s Epistemological Pluralism and the Revaluation of the Concrete. People code for different purposes, with different ways of appropriating code. The standards of the software engineer are not appropriate to apply to children. Not everybody is going to be a professional software developer, and they don’t need to be.

Increasingly, people are only going to use parts of computer science, and they will achieve fluency in those. That’s a wonderful and powerful thing. A little bit of computing goes a long way.

January 7, 2019 at 7:00 am 25 comments

Constructivism vs. Constructivism vs. Constructionism

I wrote the below in 1997. I’m surprised that I still find references to it from time-to-time. That website may be going away soon, so I thought I’d put it here (only very slightly edited) in case others may find it useful.

I’d like to offer my take on the meaning of these words. I hear them used in so many ways that I often get confused what others mean by them.

Constructivism, the cognitive theory, was invented by Jean Piaget. His idea was that knowledge is constructed by the learner. There was a prevalent idea at the time (and perhaps today as well) that knowledge is transmitted, that the learner was copying ideas read or heard in lecture directly into his or her mind. Piaget theorized that that’s not true. Instead, learning is the compilation of complex knowledge structures. The learner must consciously make an effort to derive meaning, and through that effort, meaning is constructed through the knowledge structures. Piaget liked to emphasize learning through play, but the basic cognitive theory of constructivism certainly supports learning through lecture — as long as that basic construction of meaning takes place.

I don’t know who invented the notion of Constructivism, the educational philosophy, but it says that each students constructs their own, unique meaning for everything that is learned. This isn’t the same as what Piaget said. Piaget’s theory does not rule out the possibility that you and I may construct exactly the same meaning (i.e., exactly the same knowledge constructions) for some concept or domain. The philosophy of constructivism say that learners will construct their own unique meanings for concepts, so it is not at all reasonable to evaluate students as to how well they have all met some normative goal. (Radical constructivists go so far as to say that the whole concept of a curriculum makes no sense since we cannot teach anyone anything — students will always simply create their own meaning, regardless of what teachers do.) Philosophical constructivists emphasize having students take control of their own learning, and they de-emphasize lecture and other transmissive forms of instruction. This philosophical approach gets complicated by varying concepts of reality: If we all interpret things differently, is there any correct reality?

From my perspective, the assumption of constructivists is currently an untestable hypothesis. We know of no way to peer into someone’s mental constructions. Until we can, we do not know if you and I think about the concept of velocity differently or the same.

Constructionism is more of an educational method which is based on the constructivist learning theory. Constructionism, invented by Seymour Papert who was a student of Piaget’s, says that learning occurs “most felicitously” when constructing a public artifact “whether a sand castle on the beach or a theory of the universe.” (Quotes from his chapter “Situating Constructionism” in the book “Constructionism” edited by Papert and Idit Harel.) Seymour does lean toward the constructivist learning philosophy in his writings, where he talks about the difficulty of conveying a complex concept when the reader is going to construct their own meaning. In general, though, his claim is more about method. He believes that students will be more deeply involved in their learning if they are constructing something that others will see, critique, and perhaps use. Through that construction, students will face complex issues, and they will make the effort to problem-solve and learn because they are motivated by the construction.

The confusion that I and others have about these terms stems from (a) similar looking words and (b) meaning at different levels of the word construct. Piaget was talking about how mental constructions get formed, philosophical constructivists talk about how these constructions are unique (noun construction), and Papert is simply saying that constructing is a good way to get mental constructions built. Levels here are shifting from the physical (constructionism) to the mental (constructivism), from theory to philosophy to method, from science to approach to practice.

March 19, 2018 at 9:00 am 5 comments

Seymour Papert Tribute at IDC 2013

I only planned to watch a little bit of this.  Allison Druin’s talk was particularly recommended to me.  So I started watching, and Paulo Blikstein’s opening remarks were so intriguing. (I loved his characterization that today’s notions of “personalized learning” were “like telling a prisoner that he can walk around his cell all he wants.”)  I hadn’t heard Edith Ackermann in decades, and was particularly struck by her comment, “Any theory of learning that ignore resistances to teaching misses the point!”  Mike Eisenberg, Mitchel Resnick, and Uri Wilensky were all wonderful and insightful talks, and Allison was as good as the recommendation promised.  90 minutes later, I’m explaining to my family where I’d disappeared to…

The intellectual ideas discussed are fascinating, from epistemology to politics to education to design.  Recommended.

July 9, 2013 at 1:19 am 2 comments

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