Posts tagged ‘social studies’

Helping social studies teachers to teach data literacy with Teaspoon languages

Last year, Tammy Shreiner and I received NSF funding to develop and evaluate computational supports for helping social studies teachers to teach data literacy and computing(see post here). We’re excited about what we’re doing and what we’re learning. Here’s an update on where we’re at on the project.

Teaspoon Languages

We have a chapter in the new book by Aman Yadav and Ulf Dalvad Berthelsen Computational Thinking in Education: A Pedagogical Perspective. This is the publication where we introduce the idea of Teaspoon Languages. Teaspoon languages are a form of task-specific languages (TSP => Teaspoon — see?). Teaspoon languages:

  • Support learning tasks that teachers (typically non-CS teachers) want students to achieve;
  • Are programming languages, in that they specify computational processes for a computational agent to execute; and
  • Are learnable in less than 10 minutes, so that they can be learned and used in a one hour lesson. If the language is never used again, it wasn’t a significant cost.

We say that we’re adding a teaspoon of computing to other subjects. The goal is to address the goal of “CS for All” by integrating computing into other subjects, by place the non-CS subjects first. We believe that programming can be useful in learning other subjects. Our primary goal is to meet learning objectives outside of CS using programming. Teachers (and students eventually) will be learning foundational CS content — not necessarily the ones we typically teach in CS classes. All students should learn that a program is non-WYSIWYG, that it’s a specification of a computational process that gets interpreted by a computational agent, that programming languages can be in many forms, and that all students can be successful at programming.

Our chapter, “Integrating Computing through Task-Specific Programming for Disciplinary Relevance: Considerations and Examples” (see link here) offers two use cases of how we imagine teaspoon languages to work in classrooms (history and language arts in these examples). The first use case is around DV4L, our Data Visualization for Learning tool. The second is around a chatbot language that we developed —- and have long since discarded.

We develop our teaspoon languages in a participatory design process, where teachers try our prototypes in authentic tasks as design probes, and then they tell us what we got wrong and what they really want. Our current iteration is called Charla-bots and is notable for having user-definable languages. We have a variety of Charla-bot languages now, with English, Spanish, and mixed keywords.

Our vision for teaspoon languages is a contrast with the “Hour of Code” approach. The “Hour of Code” is a one hour programming activity that many schools use in every grade, typically once a year during CS Ed Week (in early December). The great idea is to build familiarity and confidence in programming by showing students real computer science every year. The teaspoon languages approach is to imagine one or two little learning programming activity in every social studies, language arts, and mathematics class every year. Each of these languages is tiny and different. The goal is that by the time that US students take a CS class (typically, in high school or undergraduate), they will have had many programming experiences, have seen a variety of types of programming languages, and have a sense that “programming isn’t hard.”

Meeting the Needs of Social Studies Teachers

The second paper, “Using Participatory Design Research to Support the Teaching and Learning of Data Literacy in Social Studies” (see link here) was just presented in October by Tammy at CUFA, the College and University Faculty Assembly 2021 of the National Council of the Social Studies. (We have a longer form of this paper that we have just submitted to a journal.) This is an exciting paper for me because it’s exactly addressing the critical challenge in our work. We can design and implement all kinds of prototype Teaspoon languages, but to achieve our goals, teachers in disciplines other than CS have to see value and adopt them.

The paper is about our workshops with practicing social studies teachers. Tammy has a goal to teach social studies teachers how to teach data literacy. She has built a large online education resource (OER) on teaching data literacy in social studies. Learning data literacy involves being able to read, comprehend, and argue with data visualizations, but also being able to create them. That’s where we come in. Her OER links to several tools for creating data visualizations, like Timeline JS, CODAP, and GapMinder. Most of them were not created for social studies teachers or classes. When we run these workshops, our tools are just in-the-mix. We offer scaffolding for using all of them. These are our design probes. The teachers use the tools and then tell us what they really want. These are our data, and we analyze them in detail —- as in this paper.

Let’s jump to the bottom line: We’re not there yet. The teachers love the OER, but get confused about why should do in their classes. They find the tools for data visualization fascinating, but overwhelming. They like DV4L a lot:

One pre-service teacher explained that they preferred our prototype over other tools because “(with the prototype DV4L) I found myself asking questions connected to the data itself, rather than asking questions in order to figure out how to work the visual.”

Recently, I held a focus group with some social studies teachers who told me that they won’t use any computational tools —- they believe in teaching data visualization, but all created with pencil and ruler. That’s our challenge: Can we be more powerful, more enticing, and easy enough to beat out pencil and ruler? Our tool, DV4L, is purpose-built for these teachers, and they appreciate its advantages — and yet, few are adopting. That’s where we need to work next.

Opportunities for Social Studies Teachers to Get Involved

If you know a social studies teacher who would want to keep informed about our work and perhaps participate in our workshops or studies, please have them sign up on our mailing list. Thank you!

Often, what teachers tell us they really want suggests new features or entirely new tools. We have two ongoing studies where we are looking for design feedback from social studies teachers. If you know social studies teachers who would like to play with something new (and we’ll pay them for their time), would you please forward these to them?

Timeline Builder

We’re looking for K-12 Social Studies teachers to try out our new timeline visualization tool, TimelineBuilder. TimelineBuilder has been made with teachers and usability in mind. In it, ‘events’ are added to a timeline using a form-based interface. Changes to the timeline can be seen automatically, with events showing up as soon as they are added.

This study will consist of completing 2 surveys and 3 asynchronous activities guided by worksheets. All participants will be compensated with a $20 gift card for survey and activity completion. There is an additional option to be invited to a focus group, which will provide additional compensation.

If you are interested in participating in this study, you can complete the consent form and 1st survey here. (Plain text Link: https://forms.gle/gwxfn5bRgTjyothF6 )

Please contact Mark Guzdial (mjguz@umich.edu) or Tamara Nelson-Fromm (tamaranf@umich.edu) with any questions.

The University of Michigan Institutional Review Board Health Sciences and Behavioral Sciences has determined that this study is exempt from IRB oversight.

DV4L Scripting Study

Through our work with social studies educators thus far, we have designed the tools DV4L-Basic and DV4L-Scripting specifically to support data literacy standards in social studies classrooms. If you are a social studies middle or high school teacher, we would love to hear your feedback. If you can spare less than an hour of your time to participate in our study, we will send you a $50 gift card for your time and valuable feedback.

If you are interested but want more details, please visit/complete the consent form here: https://forms.gle/yo3yWGThQ1wnhu7g7

For questions or concerns, please contact Mark Guzdial (mjguz@umich.edu) or Bahare Naimipour (baharen@umich.edu).

References

Guzdial, M. and Tamara L. Shreiner. 2021. “Integrating Computing through Task-Specific Programming for Disciplinary Relevance: Considerations and Examples.” In Computational Thinking in Education: A Pedagogical Perspective, Aman Yadav and Ulf Dalvad Berthelsen (Eds). PDF of Submitted.

Shreiner, Tamara L., Mark Guzdial, and Bahare Naimipour. 2021. “Using Participatory Design Research to Support the Teaching and Learning of Data Literacy in Social Studies.” Presented at CUFA, the College and University Faculty Assembly 2021 of the National Council of the Social Studies. PDF

December 22, 2021 at 10:00 am 4 comments

From Guided Exploration to Possible Adoption: Patterns of Pre-Service Social Studies Teacher Engagement with Programming and Non-Programming Based Learning Technology Tools

In October, Bahare Naimipour presented our paper ”From Guided Exploration to Possible Adoption: Patterns of Pre-Service Social Studies Teacher Engagement with Programming and Non-Programming Based Learning Technology Tools” (Naimipour, Guzdial, Shreiner, and Spencer, 2021) at the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE) 2021 conference. (Draft of the paper is available here. Full paywall version available here.) This paper is the first one about our work with social studies teachers since we received NSF funding. It was also a report on our last face-to-face participatory design session (in March 2020) before the pandemic lockdown. And most importantly, it was our first session with our data visualization tool DV4L in the mix.

I have blogged about our participatory design sessions before (see Bahare’s FIE paper from last Fall). Basically, we set up a group of social studies teachers in pairs, then ask them to try out various visualization tools with activity sheets that we have created to scaffold their process. The goal is to get everyone to make a visualization successfully in less than 10 minutes, and leave time to explore or try one (or both) other tools. There is time for the pairs to persuade each other to (a) come try the cool tool they found or (b) avoid this tool because it’s too hard or not useful. The tools in this set were Vega-Lite (a declarative programming tool which our teachers have found complex but useful in the past), CODAP (a drag-and-drop visualization tool designed for middle and high school students), and our DV4L (a purpose-built visualization tool that makes code visible but not required).

The teachers saw value in having students build visualization themselves (e.g., “I think making your own data visualization allows for a deeper connection and understanding of the data.”) As we hoped, they teased out what they liked and disliked about the tools. Most of the teachers preferred DV4L over the other two tools, because of its simplicity. Critically, they felt that they were engaging with the inquiry and not the tool: “(With DV4L) I found myself asking questions connected to the data itself, rather than asking questions in order to figure out how to work the visual.”

That teachers found DV4L easier than Vega-Lite isn’t really surprising. We were pleased that teachers weren’t disappointed with DV4L’s more limited visualization capabilities. What was really surprising was that our teachers preferred DV4L to CODAP, and this has happened in successive in-service teacher participatory design sessions during the pandemic. CODAP is drag-and-drop, creates high-quality visualizations, and was designed explicitly for middle and high school students. A teacher in one of our in-service design sessions explained to me why she preferred DV4L to CODAP. “CODAP is really powerful, but it would take me at least three hours to get my students comfortable with it. Is it worth it?” Just how much visualization is any social studies teacher going to use? Again, too much focus on the tool gets in the way of the social studies inquiry.

Now you might be asking, “But Mark, do the students learn history with DV4L? And do they see and learn about computing?” Great questions — we’re not there yet. Here’s one of our big questions, after running several more participatory design sessions with teachers since the lockdown: Why aren’t teachers adopting DV4L in their classrooms? They tell us that they really like it. But nobody’s adopted yet. How do we go from “ooh, great tool!” to “and here’s my lesson plan, and we’ll use it next week”? That’s an active area of research for all of us right now.

April 19, 2021 at 7:00 am 2 comments

Social Studies Teachers using Programming for Data Visualization: An FIE 2020 Paper Preview

The Frontiers in Education (FIE) 2020 conference starts Wednesday October 21 in Uppsala, Sweden — see program here. My student Bahare Naimipour will be presenting our paper “Engaging Pre-Service Teachers in Front-End Design: Developing Technology for a Social Studies Classroom” (see preprint here) by Bahare, me, and Tammy Shreiner. This work came long before the NSF work that we just got funded for (see blog post here), but it’s in the same line of research.

The paper is about two of our participatory design sessions with pre-service social studies teachers in Tammy’s class on data literacy. In both of these sessions, we asked teachers to program in JavaScript or Vega-Lite to build a visualization, and in the second one, we also introduce CODAP, a visualization tool explicitly designed for middle and high school students. The paper is less about the technology and more about what the teachers told us about what they thought about tools for visualization in their class.

Social studies teachers are such an interesting group to study. They’re not particularly interested in STEM, data, or computers. They want to teach social studies. Very few of our participants had ever seen any code. (One told us, “This looks a lot like setting up my MySpace page in middle school!”)They’re only interested if we can help them teach what they want to teach. It’s a hard audience to engage, in all the right ways.

I’m going to highlight just two lessons we learned here:

First: The results from the two participatory design sessions were remarkably different. Participatory design isn’t a “okay, we did that — check off the box” methodology. Each group of participants can be remarkably different. There’s no generalization here. Each session is useful, but I don’t know how many sessions we’d have to do to get anywhere near saturation. That’s okay — we learned design lessons from each session.

Second: There is no one answer to how teachers think about programming. I have heard from many people that teachers find programming hard (see this CACM Blog post about that discussion), and I’ve hypothesized that to be true in this blog (see this post). So, now I’ve been in the room as social studies teachers have their first programming experiences and interviewing them afterwards, and….it’s complicated.

Teachers tell us often in our sessions that programming is overwhelming, but several teachers also told us that CODAP (explicitly designed for their use, and not a programming tool) was overwhelming. The question is whether it’s worth the complexity — and for whom. We get contradictory responses from the teachers, which we report in this paper. One told us that she wanted a simpler tool for herself and JavaScript for her students: “I don’t mind keeping life simple for me, but I wanted to challenge my students and give them useful, new skills.” Another teacher told us the opposite: “I would like Java[script] because it would let me do more to the visualization. Vega-lite would be better for students because it seems far more simple.”

We couldn’t fit in all the great stories and insights from these two participatory design sessions. Like the teacher who wants JavaScript in her class because, “That’s similar to what they use in math and science, right? I don’t want history to be the ‘dumbed-down’ programming.” I found that surprising, and wondered what the teachers would think of a block-based language. Another teacher told us that she wants to use programming in her history class, “Because maybe that would make history ‘cool.’” One of the tensions I found most interesting in these sessions was between the desire to know the tools and be comfortable in front of the class, and the desire to push their students to learn more. Some teachers told us that they preferred CODAP to any programming tool because they would be embarrassed to get a syntax error in front of their kids, which they realized would always be possible when programming. Other teachers told us that they were more concerned with going beyond basic tools — (paraphrasing one comment we received), “My students will already know Excel and Google Sheets. I want them to do more in my class.”

Our work is ramping up now. We had another PD session with pre-service teachers in March, just before pandemic lockdown, which was our first one with our data visualization tool in the mix. We’ve just held our first workshop in August for in-service (practicing) teachers. We’ve got more workshops planned over the next year. You’ll likely be hearing more from these studies in future posts.

October 19, 2020 at 7:00 am 4 comments


Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 9,030 other followers

Feeds

Recent Posts

Blog Stats

  • 1,994,858 hits
January 2022
M T W T F S S
 12
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
31  

CS Teaching Tips