Posts tagged ‘ebooks’
I have written individual blog posts for each paper or other contributions at conferences like ICER or SIGCSE. Then sometimes, like this year, that’s just overwhelming. So please excuse me for talking about a bunch (I may not even get all of it) of Georgia Tech related CS Education work at SIGCSE 2017 this year. (Conference website is here, and program is here. The on-line program is really nice, which is here.)
Workshop 101: GP: A General Purpose Blocks-Based Language
Wednesday 7-10 pm: Room 618-619
I’m helping to organize a workshop with John Maloney, Yoshiki Ohshima, and Jens Mönig on GP. I blogged about GP here, and about the use of GP for Media Computation in a minimal manuals structure here. The workshop will be the first SIGCSE activity with GP. The plan is to move it into a public form next summer, and the team is looking for people who want to start using it for their classes.
Panel: The Role of CS Departments in The US President’s “CS for All” Initiative
Thursday 10:45-12: Room 6E
I was part of an effort at last year’s CRA Conference at Snowbird to get CS departments to participate in President Obama’s “CS for All” initiative (see blog post here). This year, Barbara Ericson, Rick Adrion, and Megean Garvin will tell us about how their CS departments are working to promote CS for All. I’m the moderator.
EarSketch: A STEAM-based Approach for Underrepresented Populations in High School Computer Science Education
Thursday 1:45-3:00: Room 615
Brian Magerko and Jason Freeman will present on EarSketch, which I just blogged about here. They are also presenting on Creativity in Authentic STEAM Education with EarSketch on Friday 1:45-3 in Room 612. And then again Saturday 10-10:45 as a demo, EarSketch, a web-application to teach Computer Science through Music
CS Principle Ebooks for Teachers and Students building on Educational Psychology Principles
Thursday 3-4:30 pm: NSF Showcase in Exhibition Space
BOF: Researching the K–12 Computer Science Framework
Thursday 5:30-6:20 pm: Room 613-614
I’m part of a BOF led by Pat Yongpradit of Code.org with Leigh Ann DeLyser of CSNYC and Kathi Fisler at Brown. The BOF session will allow researchers to discuss opportunities in K-12 CS ed research within five areas related to the implementation and future of the framework:
- Equity and access
- Learning progressions
- Pedagogical content knowledge (Knowledge teachers need to teach CS)
- Facilitating learning in other disciplines
- Policy and implementation within K–12 education systems
Workshop 310: Using and Customizing Open-Source Runestone Ebooks for Computer Science Classes
Friday 7-10 pm: Room 612
Barb, Brad Miller, and Paul Resnick will present on the Runestone platform that we build our ebooks on. Brad built Runestone, and Paul uses and extends it frequently for his Informatics course at U. Michigan. This is the first time that they’re teaching others how to use the platform, which is a great sign of the maturation of Runestone — from researcher and early-adopters into something that all CS educators can use.
Designing and Studying of Maker Oriented Learning to Transform Advanced Computer Science
Saturday 10-11:30, NSF Showcase area in Exhibitions
Zane Cochran, a student of my colleague Betsy DiSalvo, will present some of his work on using maker spaces to improve CS education.
Concepts and Practices: Designing and Developing A Modern K12 CS Framework
Saturday 10:45-12: Room 611
My PhD student, Miranda Parker (who has been working on privilege issues and on the SCS1), and Leigh Ann Delyser (of CSNYC and CS for All fame) will present on the new K-12 CS Framework (see blog post here) and the research support for it.
Workshop 401: Evidence Based Teaching Practices in CS
Saturday 3-6 pm: Room 618-619
Briana Morrison is leading the effort with Cynthia Lee, Leo Porter, Beth Simon, and me to present CS teaching practices for which we have an evidence-base. We’re drawing a lot on our New Faculty Workshops material.
Workshop 404: How to Plan and Run Effective Teacher Professional Development
Saturday 3-6 pm: Room 612
(YES! Dueling workshops!)
Barb is working with Rebecca Dovi and Ria Galanos on how to teach CS teacher professional learning opportunities. Barb is using a lot of the material that she’s developed for “Train the Trainer” sessions as part of ECEP.
Our computing education research group at Georgia Tech has been developing and evaluating ebooks for several years (see this post with discussion of some of them). We publish on them frequently, with a new paper just accepted to ICER 2016 in Melbourne. We use the Runestone Interactive platform which allows us to create ebooks with a lot of different kinds of learning activities — not just editing and running code (which I’ve been arguing for awhile is really important to support a range of abilities and motivations), but including editing and running code.
John Carroll came up with the idea of minimal manuals back in the 1980’s (see the earliest paper I found on the idea). The goal is to help people to use complicated computing devices with the minimum of overhead. Each page of the manual starts with a task — something that a user would want to do. The goal is to put the instruction for how to achieve that task all on that one page.
The idea of minimalist instruction is described here: http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/minimalism.html.
The four principles of minimal instruction design are:
- Allow learners to start immediately on meaningful tasks.
- Minimize the amount of reading and other passive forms of training by allowing users to fill in the gaps themselves
- Include error recognition and recovery activities in the instruction
- Make all learning activities self-contained and independent of sequence.
There’s good evidence that minimal manuals really do work (see http://doc.utwente.nl/26430/1/Lazonder93minimal.pdf). Learners become more productive more quickly with minimal manuals, with surprisingly high scores on transfer and retention. A nice attribute of minimal manuals is that they’re geared toward success. They likely increase self-efficacy, a significant problem in CS education.
The goal of most minimal instruction is to be able to do something. What about learning conceptual knowledge?
Adding Learning Theory: Inquiry, Worked Examples, and Constructionism
I started exploring minimal manuals as a model for designing CS educational media after a challenge from Alan Kay. Alan asked me to think about how we would teach people to be autodidacts. One of the approaches used to encourage autodidactism is inquiry-based learning. Could we structure a minimal manual around questions that they might have or that we want students to ask themselves?
We structure our Runestone ebooks around an Examples+Practice framework. We provide a worked example (typically executable code, but sometimes a program visualization), and then ask (practice) questions about that example. We provide one or two practice exercises for every example. Based on Lauren Margeliux’s work, the point of the practice is to get students to think about the example, to engage with it, and to explain it to themselves. It’s less important that they do the questions — I want the students to read the questions and think about them, and Lauren’s work suggests that even the feedback may not be all that important.
Finally, one of the aspects that I like about Runestone is that every example in an active code area is a complete Python interpreter. Modify the code anyway you want. Erase all of it and build something new if you want. It’s constructionist. We want students to construct with the examples and go beyond them.
MOHQ: Minimal Manual Organized around Hypertext Questions
The prototype MOHQ that David Tran and I built (http://home.cc.gatech.edu/gpblocks) is an implementation of this integration of minimal manuals with constructionism, inquiry, and worked examples. Each page in the MOHQ:
- Starts with a question that a student might be wondering about.
- Offers a worked example in a video.
- Offer the opportunity to construct with the example project.
- Asks one or two practice questions, to prompt thinking about the project.
Using the minimal design principles to structure the explanation:
- Allow learners to start immediately on meaningful tasks.
The top page offers several questions that I hope are interesting to a student. Every page offers a project that aims to answer that question. GP is a good choice here because it’s blocks-based (low cognitive load) and I can do MediaComp in it (which is what I wanted to teach in this prototype).
#1: Minimize the amount of reading and other passive forms of training by allowing users to fill in the gaps themselves.
Each page has a video of David or me solving the problem in GP. Immediately afterward is a link to jump directly into the GP project exactly where the video ended. Undo something, redo something, start over and build something else. The point is to watch a video (where we try to explain what we’re doing, but we’re certainly not filling in all the gaps), then figure out how it works on your own.
Then we offer a couple of practice questions to challenge the learner: Did you really understand what was going on here?
#2: Include error recognition and recovery activities in the instruction.
Error recovery is easy when everything is in the browser — just hit the back button. You can’t save. You can’t damage anything. (We tell people this explicitly on every page.)
#3: Make all learning activities self-contained and independent of sequence.
This is the tough one. I want people to actually learn something in a MOHQ, that pixels have red, green, and blue components, and chromakey is about replacing one color with a background image, and that removing every other sample increases the frequency of a sound — and more general ideas, e.g., that elements in a collection can be referenced by index number.
So, all the driving questions from the home page start with, “Okay, you can just dive in here, but you might want to first go check out these other pages.” You don’t have to, but if you want to understand better what’s going on here, you might want to start with simpler questions.
We also want students to go on — to ask themselves new questions, to go try other projects. After each project, we offer some new questions that we hope that students might ask themselves. The links are explicitly prompts. “You might be thinking about these questions. Even if you weren’t, you might want to. Let’s see where we can explore next.”
Current Prototype and What Comes Next
Here’s the map of pages that we have out there right now. We built it in a Wiki which facilitated creating the network of pages that we want. This isn’t a linear book.
There’s maybe a dozen pages out there, but even with that relatively small size, it took most of a semester to pull these together. Producing the videos and building these pages by hand (even in a Wiki) was a lot of work. The tough part was every time we changed our minds about something — and had to go back through all of the previously built pages and update them. Since this is a prototype (i.e., we didn’t know what we wanted when we started), that happened quite often. If we were going to add more to the GP MOHQ, I’d want to use a tool for generating pages from a database as we did with STABLE, the Smalltalk Apprenticeship-Based Learning Environment.
I would appreciate your thoughts about MOHQ. Call this an expert review of the idea.
- Thumbs-up or down? Worth developing further, or a bad direction?
- What do you think is promising about this idea?
- What would we need to change to make it more effective for student learning?
Preview for WiPSCE 2015: Usability and usage of interactive features in an online ebook for CS teachers
Next week in London, at WiPSCE 2015, the 10th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education, Barbara Ericson is going to present the pilot study of our teacher CSP ebook that Steven Moore (undergrad researcher here at Georgia Tech) ran last year. This is the pilot that came before our Spring trial (see post here) and which led to our student and teacher ebooks that we recently released (see post here). The authors of the paper are Barbara, Steven, Brianna Morrison, and me.
Steven’s study had two parts to it. The first was a usability survey comparing three different ebook platforms: Runestone Interactive, Zyante, and CS Circles. You may recall the post here where I invited you to participate in that survey. Runestone did well in the survey, just beating out Zyante, and both were far ahead of CS Circles.
The meat of the paper is the study of 10 teachers who qualified for our study (got less than 40% on a pretest) and read the 8 chapters we had ready for them. Every two chapters, there was a post-test on those two chapters. Some of the findings:
- 50% of the study participants finished all 8 chapters. That’s pretty good, but isn’t directly comparable to MOOC studies because we did offer them a $50 gift card for completing.
- As we expected and designed for, teachers read the books in chunks of time when they could fit it in.
- Those who used the book (e.g., did the Parson’s problems, ran the code, etc.), gained confidence in teaching CS and performed well on the post-tests. This is a big deal! The teachers are not just writing code. They are using a variety of different kinds of learning activities (see our ICER ebook paper) — and successfully learning and gaining confidence. Writing code is not the only way to learn CS. This has been one of the more controversial hypotheses. Many CS teachers believe that apprenticeship is the only way to learn CS, but we believe that we can successfully use a range of pedagogical practices.
Barbara did an extensive log file analysis of the participants, and we learned a lot from that. We learned where our books were not usable, e.g., when participants skipped over interactive features, or when they used the features wrong (e.g., clicking “Check Me” on a Parson’s problem, without ever moving pieces around). We used these findings in designing the current ebooks.
This paper is exciting for us — it’s the first where we test our design claims.
Matt Moldavan is an MS HCI student here at Georgia Tech who is developing a new Instructor Dashboard for the Runestone Interactive and our group’s CSP eBooks (see announcement here). The goal for the dashboard is to offer useful reports, graphs, and analytics accessible by instructors. He aims to provide instructors with useful insights into their students’ activity and progress through their online course(s).
He’s conducting a survey to find out what teachers want to know when overseeing student activity in online learning. We would like to know your previous experiences with similar student progress tracking tools (such as Cengage, Moodle, Desire2Learn, and others). Additionally, we are seeking feedback on several early design prototypes of the dashboard.
Matt has a short survey at https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/YQJ5MVC. If you have taught an online course or have used any other student progress tracking tools, your input would be greatly appreciated.
For more information, contact Matt at email@example.com.
We now have TWO ebooks supporting CS Principles (see website here) now available — one for teachers and one for students.
Our teacher ebook summer study is now ended. (Announcement about launching the study is here.) We’re crunching the data now. We’ve already learned a lot about what teachers want in an ebook. We learned where our user interface wasn’t obvious, and where we needed to explain more. We learned that teachers expect end-of-chapter exercises. We have used what we have learned so far to produce the two new ebooks.
STUDENT CSP EBOOK: About a year ago, we received additional NSF funding (from the Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE) program) to develop a student version of our CSP ebook. We have been running participatory design studies and gathering usability surveys from students to get input on what a student ebook should look like. We have now released the first version of the student ebook.
The student CSP ebook is available at http://interactivepython.org/runestone/static/StudentCSP/index.html It doesn’t require a login, but we recommend that teachers have their students login. Without a login, we store saved answers on the local computer, but if the student logs in, we save the answers by the student’s username. The course name is StudentCSP.
We recommend that teachers create a custom version of the student ebook for your students. This allows teachers to customize the ebook, assign homework, and view student’s progress, and even create additional assessments for students.
New Version TEACHER CSP EBOOK: We iterated on our teacher ebook at the same time that we were developing the student ebook. We hypothesize that the student CSP ebook may actually encourage teachers to complete the teacher ebook. We can imagine that teachers who use the student ebook might want to stay one step ahead of the students, e.g., “My students are starting Chapter 3 on Monday, so I better finish Chapter 3 this weekend.”
We have now created a second version of our teacher CSP ebook. This one is in lockstep with the student CSP ebook, includes all the end-of-chapter exercise answers and teacher notes (e.g., on how to teach particular concepts, common student difficulties, etc.). We are not making the second teacher ebook available openly (because it includes answers to the student problems).
Teachers, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org with the name and location of your school, and we’ll send you the URL.
We recommend that teachers create their own course for their students. See http://interactivepython.org/runestone/static/overview/instructor.html for why a teacher might want to build a custom course and how to do it.
- You must register on Runestone first at http://interactivepython.org/runestone/default/user/register. Enter StudentCSP as the course name. Be sure to record your username. We find that users often forget what they entered and assume it was their e-mail address — and it may not have been. You can also choose to sign in with your account on Google Plus, Facebook, Twitter, or several others.
- Then go to http://interactivepython.org/runestone/admin/index and select “Create your own Course”.
- Create a unique name for your course (use your school name and StudentCSP and year maybe), add a description, and your institution, and then select “CS Principles: Big Ideas in Programming by Mark Guzdial, Barbara Ericson, and Briana Morrison“.
- Leave the rest as defaults and click the “Submit” button. This will build a custom version of the student ebook for your students and it will have a unique URL and course name. You will be listed as the instructor and can look at the log files and view other information on the instructor page (you can get to this by clicking on the icon that looks like a head and shoulders and the top right of your screen when you are in the ebook).
ICER 2015 (see website here) is August 9-13 in Omaha, Nebraska. The event starts for me and Barbara Ericson, Miranda Parker, and Briana Morrison on Saturday August 8. They’re all in the Doctoral Consortium, and I’m one of the co-chairs this year. (No, I’m not a discussant for any of my students.) The DC kickoff dinner is on Saturday, and the DC is on Sunday. My thanks to my co-chair Anthony Robins and to our discussants Tiffany Barnes, Steve Cooper, Beth Simon, Ben Shapiro, and Aman Yadav. A huge thanks to the SIGCSE Board who fund the DC each year.
We’ve got two papers in ICER this year, and I’ll preview each of them in separate blog posts. The papers are already available in the ACM digital library (see listing here), and I’ll put them on my Guzdial Papers page as soon as the Authorizer updates with them.
I’m very excited that the first CSLearning4U project paper is being presented by Barbara on Tuesday. (See our website here, the initial blog post when I announced the project here, and the announcement that the ebook is now available). Her paper, “Analysis of Interactive Features Designed to Enhance Learning in an Ebook,” presents the educational psychology principles on memory and learning that we’re building on, describes features of the ebooks that we’re building, and presents the first empirical description of how the Runestone ebooks that we’re studying (some that we built, some that others have built) are being used.
My favorite figure in the paper is this one:
This lists all the interactive practice elements of one chapter of a Runestone ebook along the horizontal axis (in the order in which they appear in the book left-to-right), and the number of users who used that element vertically. The drop-off from left-to-right is the classic non-completion rate that we see in MOOCs and other online education. Notice the light blue bars labelled “AC-E”? That’s editing code (in executable Active Code elements). Notice all the taller bars around those light blue bars? That’s everything else. What we see here is that fewer and fewer learners edit code, while we still see learners doing other kinds of learning practice, like Parsons Problems and multiple choice problems. Variety works to keep more users engaged for longer.
A big chunk of the paper is a detailed analysis of learners using Parsons Problems. Barbara did observational studies and log file analyses to gauge how difficult the Parsons problems were. The teachers solved them in one or two tries, but they had more programming experience. The undergraduate and high schools students had more difficulty — some took over 100 tries to solve a problem. Her analysis supports her argument that we need adaptive Parsons Problems, which is a challenge that she’s planning on tackling next.
This week is the SIGCSE 2015 Technical Symposium, the largest computing education conference in the US, perhaps in the world. About 1300 people will be heading to Kansas City for four days of discussion, workshops, and talks. See the conference page here and the program here.
Barbara Ericson and I will be presenting at several events:
- I’m speaking on a panel Thursday afternoon at 3:45 on human-subjects review of experiment protocols (by Institutional Review Boards (IRB)) and the challenges we’ve had in working in high schools and working on cross-institutional projects.
- Barb and I will be hosting with Rick Adrion a Birds of a Feather (BOF) session on state-level change at 6:30 Thursday. This is part of our ECEP work.
- On Friday morning at 10 am, we’ll be showing our electronic book (ebook) for high school teachers interested in learning CS Principles. The first public showing was at the NSF BPC Community meeting in January, but that was to a small audience. We’ll be presenting at the NSF Showcase at 10 am on the exhibition floor.
- Barb is speaking on Friday afternoon in a panel at 3:30 on activities for K-12 CS outreach.
- On Friday night, Barb is running her famous “How to run a computing summer camp workshop.”
As usual, Georgia Tech is sending several of us (not just Barb and me). One of my PhD students, Briana Morrison, is on a panel on Flipped Classrooms Thursday 1:45-3 pm in 3501G. Another of my PhD students, Miranda Parker, is part of a BOF Preparing Undergraduates to Make the Most of Attending CS Conferences 6:30-7:20 on Thursday evening. Our colleague, Betsy DiSalvo, is speaking Friday morning 10:45-12 on a panel Research, Resources and Communities: Informal Ed as a Partner in Computer Science Education in 2505A.
This is one of my shorter stays at a SIGCSE conference. I’ll be coming in late Wednesday and leaving Friday afternoon. I’ve been traveling way too much lately (NSF BPC Community meeting in January, talk at Penn in early February, Tapia conference in Boston two weeks ago, AP CS Principles review meeting in Chicago this last week). I am fortunate to be teaching Media Computation this semester, and I hate to miss so many lectures. More, it’s hard on our family when we’re both gone. Barb will be at SIGCSE all week, from Tuesday night to Sunday morning, so be sure to stop by and say hello to her.