Posts tagged ‘BPC’

The gender imbalance in AI is greater than in CS overall, and that’s a big problem

My colleague, Rada Mihalcea, sent me a copy of a new (April 2019) report from the AI Now Institute on Discriminating Systems: Gender, Race, and Power in AI (see link here) which describes the diversity crisis in AI:

There is a diversity crisis in the AI sector across gender and race. Recent studies found only 18% of authors at leading AI conferences are women, and more than 80% of AI professors are men. This disparity is extreme in the AI industry: women comprise only 15% of AI research staff at Facebook and 10% at Google. There is no public data on trans workers or other gender minorities. For black workers, the picture is even worse. For example, only 2.5% of Google’s workforce is black, while Facebook and Microsoft are each at 4%. Given decades of concern and investment to redress this imbalance, the current state of the field is alarming.

Without a doubt, those percentages do not match the distribution of gender and ethnicity in the population at large. But we already know that participation in CS does not match the population. How do the AI distributions match the distribution of gender and ethnicity among CS researchers?

A sample to compare to is the latest graduates with CS PhDs. Take a look at the 2018 Taulbee Survey from the CRA (see link here).  19.3% of CS PhD’s went to women. That’s terrible gender diversity when compared to the population, and AI  (at 10%, 15%, or 18%) is doing worse. Only 1.4% of new CS PhD’s were Black. From an ethnicity perspective, Google, Facebook, and Microsoft are doing surprisingly well.

The AI Now Institute report is concerned about intersectionality. “The overwhelming focus on ‘women in tech’ is too narrow and likely to privilege white women over others.” I heard this concern at the recent NCWIT Summit (see link here).  The issues of women are not identical across ethnicities. The other direction of intersectionality is also a concern. My student, Amber Solomon, has published on how interventions for Black students in CS often focus on Black males: Not Just Black and Not Just a Woman: Black Women Belonging in Computing (see link here).

I had not seen previously a report on diversity in just one part of CS, and I’m glad to see it. AI (and particularly the sub-field of machine learning) is growing in importance. We know that having more diversity in the design team makes it more likely that a broader range of issues are considered in the design process. We also know that biased AI technologies are already being developed and deployed (see the Algorithmic Justice League). A new Brookings Institute Report identifies many of the biases and suggests ways of avoiding them (see report here). AI is one of the sub-fields of computer science where developing greater diversity is particularly important.


June 3, 2019 at 7:00 am 1 comment

The systemic factors that limit Black participation in the Tech sector

I learned a lot from Kamau Bobb’s recent Atlantic article, “The Black Struggle for Technology Jobs.”  In it, he details the systemic factors that limit Black participation in the Tech sector.  He uses the possibility of Amazon’s HQ2 going to Atlanta as a framing.

After Atlanta made the shortlist of cities vying for Amazon’s second global headquarters, HQ2, it submitted a multibillion-dollar investment to try to seal the deal. (Other cities’ proposals were even bigger.) At stake is nothing less than the city’s economic future: HQ2 promises more than 50,000 high-tech jobs with an average salary of more than $100,000. With the tech industry looking like the future of all industry, Atlanta landing Amazon’s HQ2 would be a dream come true.

But a dream for whom? Highly educated people, particularly those with technical skills, are the ones who are really eligible for these prized jobs. People without that kind of education risk becoming even more marginalized in an increasingly tech-driven economy. In Atlanta, one of the most segregated cities in the United States, history has already largely determined who gets to benefit from the potential of Amazon.

In 2016, there was only one census tract in Atlanta where the population was more than 65 percent black, and where more than half the population age 25 or older had a bachelor’s degree or higher. In 2000, there were 10. Here, many black and brown students, and poor students of all backgrounds, receive a substandard education that does not prepare them for entry to the select colleges and universities tech companies draw their workforces from. Consequently, with or without Amazon’s investment, the city’s black population likely won’t land stem jobs unless they can gain access to the rigorous educational paths required to compete for them. In Atlanta and the many other American cities still scarred by decades of racist education policies, the future of work is still largely defined by a past from which their residents of color can’t seem to break free.

I’m biased in favor of this article because one of the students he interviews in this piece is my daughter, Katie. I learned from Katie’s comments, too.  I knew that the public high school where we sent all three of our children was unusually diverse, yet it was a family conversation how the gifted/accelerated classes were almost all white and Asian.  Because of what Barb and I do, we kept an eye on the AP CS class at that high school, and were surprised every year at how few Blacks ever entered the class, despite the significant percentage of Black students in the school. I’m glad that, years later, Katie still thinks about those issues and why so few Black students made it into her AP classes.


December 3, 2018 at 8:00 am 2 comments

African-Americans don’t want to play baseball, like women don’t want to code: Both claims are false

I listened to few of my podcasts this summer with our move, so I’m catching up on them now. I just heard one that gave me a whole new insight into Stuart Reges’s essay Why Women Don’t Code.

In Here’s Why You’re Not an Elite Athlete (see transcript here), they consider why:

In 1981, there was 18.7 percent black, African-American players in the major leagues. As of 2018, 7.8 percent.

Why was there such a precipitous drop? David Canton, a professor at Connecticut College, offers three explanations:

I look at these factors: deindustrialisation, mass incarceration, and suburbanization. With deindustrialisation — lack of tax base — we know there’s no funds to what? Construct and maintain ball fields. You see the rapid decline of the physical space in the Bronx, in Chicago, in these other urban areas, which leads to what? Lack of participation.

Suburbanization drew the tax base out of the cities. With fewer taxes in the cities, there were fewer funds to support ball fields and maintain baseball leagues.

The incarceration rates for African-American men is larger than for other demographic groups (see NCAA stats). Canton explains why that impacts participation in baseball:

I can imagine in 1980, if you were 18-year-old black man in L.A., Chicago, New York, all of a sudden, you’re getting locked up for nonviolent offenses. I’m going to assume that you played baseball. I’m arguing that those men — if you did a survey, and go to prison today, federal and state, I bet you a nice percentage of these guys played baseball. Now some were not old enough to have children. And the ones that did weren’t there to teach their son to play baseball, to volunteer in Little League because they were in jail for nonviolent offenses.

There is now a program called RBI, for Reviving Baseball in Inner cities, funded by Major League Baseball, to try to increase the participation in baseball by African-Americans and other under-served youth. There are RBI Academies in Los Angeles, New York, Kansas City, and St. Louis.

So, why are there so few African-Americans in baseball? One might assume that they just choose not to play baseball, just as how Stuart Reges decided that the lack of women in the Tech industry means that they don’t want to code.

I find the parallels between the two stories striking:

  • Baseball used to be 18.7% African-American.
  • Computer Science used to be 40% female.
  • There have been and are great African-American baseball players. (In 1981, 22% of the All-Star game rosters, were African-American, according to Forbes.) There is no inherent reason why African-Americans can’t play baseball.
  • There have been and are great female computer scientists. There is no inherent reason why women can’t code.
  • Today, baseball is only 7.8% African-American.
  • Today, computer science is only about 17% female (in undergraduate enrollment).
  • There are structural and systemic reasons why there are fewer African-Americans in baseball, such as deindustrialization, suburbanization, and a disproportionate impact of incarceration on the African-American community. (Some commentators say that the whiteness of baseball runs much deeper.)
  • There are structural and systemic reasons where there are fewer women in computer science. There are many others, like the thoughtful posts from Jen Mankoff and Ann Karlin, and the heartfelt personal blog post by Kasey Champion, who have listed these far better than I could.
  • Major League Baseball recognizes the problem and has created RBI to address it.
  • The Tech industry, NSF (e.g., through creation of NCWIT), and others recognize the problem and are working to address it. Damore and Reges are among those in Tech who are arguing that we shouldn’t be trying to address this problem, that there are differences between men and women, and that we’re unlikely to ever reach gender equity in Tech.

Maybe there are people pushing back on the RBI program in baseball, who believe that African-Americans have chosen not to play baseball. I haven’t seen or heard that.

If we accept that we ought to do something to get more African-Americans past the systemic barriers into baseball, isn’t it just as evident that we should do something to get more females into Computing?

November 26, 2018 at 8:00 am 1 comment

The Backstory on Barbie the Robotics Engineer: What might that change?

Professor Casey Fiesler has a deep relationship with Barbie, that started with a feminist remix of a book.  I blogged about the remix and Casey’s comments on Barbie the Game Designer in this post. Now, Casey has helped develop a new book “Code Camp with Barbie and Friends” and she wrote the introduction. She tells the backstory in this Medium blog post.

In her essay, Casey considers her relationship with Barbie growing up:

I’ve also thought a lot about my own journey through computing, and how I might have been influenced by greater representation of women in tech. I had a lot of Barbies when I was a kid. For me, dolls were a storytelling vehicle, and I constructed elaborate soap operas in which their roles changed constantly. Most of my Barbies dated MC Hammer because my best friend was a boy who wasn’t allowed to have “girl” dolls, and MC was way more interesting than Ken. I also wasn’t too concerned about what the box told me a Barbie was supposed to be; otherwise I’d have had to create stories about models and ballerinas and the occasional zookeeper or nurse. My creativity was never particularly constrained, but I can’t help but think that even just a nudge — a reminder that Barbie could be a computer programmer instead of a ballerina — would have influenced my own storytelling.

I’ve been thinking about how Barbie coding might influence girls’ future interest in Tech careers.  I doubt that Barbie is a “role model” for many girls. Probably few girls want to grow up to be “like Barbie.” What a coding Barbie might do is to change the notion of “what’s acceptable” for girls.

In models of how students make choices in academia (e.g., Eccles’ expectancy-value theory) and how students get started in a field (e.g., Alexander’s Model of Domain Learning), the social context of the decision matters a lot. Students ask themselves “Do I want to do this activity and why?” and use social pressure and acceptance to decide what’s an appropriate class to take.  If there are no visible girls coding, then there is no social pressure. There are no messages that programming is an acceptable behavior.  A coding Barbie starts to change the answer to the question, “Can someone like me do this?”

September 24, 2018 at 7:00 am 2 comments

Why Don’t Women Want to Code? Better question: Why don’t women choose CS more often?

Jen Mankoff (U. Washington faculty member, and Georgia Tech alumna) has written a thoughtful piece in response to the Stuart Reges blog post (which I talked about here), where she tells her own stories and reframes the question.

Foremost, I think this is the wrong question to be asking. As my colleague Anna Karlin argues, women and everyone else should code. In many careers that women choose, they will code. And very little of my time as an academic is spent actually coding, since I also write, mentor, teach, etc. In my opinion, a more relevant question is, “Why don’t women choose computer science more often?”

My answer is not to presume prejudice, by women (against computer science) or by computer scientists (against women). I would argue instead that the structural inequalities faced by women are dangerous to women’s choice precisely because they are subtle and pervasive, and that they exist throughout a woman’s entire computer science career. Their insidious nature makes them hard to detect and correct.

Source: Why Don’t Women Want to Code? Ask Them! – Jennifer Mankoff – Medium

September 21, 2018 at 7:00 am 2 comments

US National Science Foundation increases emphasis on broadening participation in computing

The computing directorate at the US National Science Foundation (CISE) has increased its emphasis on broadening participation in computing (BPC).  (See quote below and FAQ here.) They had a pilot program where large research grants were required to include a plan to increase the participation of groups or populations underrepresented or under-served in computing. They are now expanding the program to include medium and large scale grants. The idea is to get more computing researchers nationwide focusing on BPC goals.

CISE recognizes that BPC requires an array of long-term, sustained efforts, and will require the participation of the entire community. Efforts to broaden participation must be action-oriented and must take advantage of multiple approaches to eliminate or overcome barriers. BPC depends on many factors, and involves changing culture throughout academia—within departments, classrooms, and research groups. This change begins with enhanced awareness of barriers to participation as well as remedies throughout the CISE community, including among principal investigators (PIs), students, and reviewers. BPC may therefore involve a wide range of activities, examples of which include participating in professional development opportunities aimed at providing more inclusive environments, joining various existing and future collective impact programs to helping develop and implement departmental BPC plans that build awareness, inclusion, and engagement, and conducting outreach to underrepresented groups at all levels (K-12, undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate).

In 2017, CISE commenced a pilot effort to increase the community’s involvement in BPC, by requiring BPC plans to be included in proposals for certain large awards [notably proposals to the Expeditions in Computing program, plus Frontier proposals to the Cyber-Physical Systems and Secure and Trustworthy Cyberspace (SaTC) programs]. By expanding the pilot to require that Medium and Large projects in certain CISE programs [the core programs of the CISE Divisions of Computing and Communication Foundations (CCF), Computer and Network Systems (CNS), and Information and Intelligent Systems (IIS), plus the SaTC program] have approved plans in place at award time in 2019, CISE hopes to accomplish several things:

  • Continue to signal the importance of and commitment to BPC;
  • Stimulate the CISE community to take action; and
  • Educate the CISE community about the many ways in which members of the community can contribute to BPC.

The long-term goal of this pilot is for all segments of the population to have clear paths and opportunities to contribute to computing and closely related disciplines.


August 31, 2018 at 7:00 am 1 comment

In last five years, little progress in increasing the fraction of American CS BS degree recipients who are African Americans

Keith Bowman published a series of blog posts this summer on African American undergraduate degrees in engineering.  In July, he wrote one on computer science – linked here. It’s interesting, careful, and depressing. I’m quoting the conclusion below, but I highly recommend clicking on the link and seeing the whole report. What’s most interesting is the greater context — Bowman is comparing across different engineering programs, so he has a strong and data-driven sense of what’s average and what’s below average.

There has been little progress in increasing the fraction of American CS BS degree recipients who are African Americans. Progress will likely only take place through a concerted effort by industry, professional societies, academia and government to foster change, including stronger efforts in graduate degrees. CS undergraduate programs fare poorly compared to many other engineering disciplines in the context of gender diversity and slightly worse than engineering overall in the fraction of African Americans earning undergraduate degrees. Many of the largest CS programs in the US are strikingly behind the national averages for CS BS degrees earned by African Americans.


August 24, 2018 at 7:00 am 5 comments

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